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From articles published in STRESS during the past two years (2020 ~ ).

Original Articles
The Influencing Factors of Burnout in Nurses in the COVID-19 Pandemic Disaster
Jeong Yee Bae, Eun-kyung Lee, Bi-Joo Kim, Eun Ju Lee
STRESS. 2021;29(2):80-86.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2021.29.2.80
  • 1,078 View
  • 83 Download
  • 6 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aims to identify factors influencing burnout in nurses during COVID-19 disaster situations.

Methods

The research subjects were 131 nurses who had the experience of nursing patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and were selected through convenience sampling. The collected data were subjected to percentage, mean and standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS version 24.0 program.

Results

Burnout in nurses showed a statistically significant correlation with anxiety, PTSD, and depression. It was also confirmed that nurses’ depression and shift work were important factors that had significant effects on burnout.

Conclusions

In preparation for new infectious diseases that are expected to become more frequent in the future, a policy to supply nursing manpower and prevent burnout is necessary. In addition, it is necessary to introduce various work systems and develop and disseminate intervention programs for depression and burnout.

Relationship among Perceived Male Friendliness Nursing Programs, Gender Role Stereotype, and Major Satisfaction in Korean Male Nursing Students
Sunhee Cho, So-Hi Kwon, In Suk Rho
STRESS. 2020;28(4):213-220.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.213
  • 651 View
  • 9 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aimed to evaluate the perceived male friendliness in nursing programs and to identify the relationship of this with gender role stereotype and major satisfaction.

Methods

A convenience sample of 193 male nursing students was recruited for the cross-sectional survey design. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA with the SPSS/WIN 21.0.

Results

The mean scores of male friendliness, major satisfaction, and gender role stereotype were 2.94±0.35, 3.72±0.81, and 2.58±0.53, respectively. Perceived male friendliness in nursing programs was found to be correlated with gender role stereotype (r=−.215, p<.001). Participants who completed maternal nursing courses showed lower male friendliness (t=−4.53, p<.001).

Conclusions

Improving the male friendliness of maternal nursing courses and flexible gender role stereotyping should be considered when developing effective strategies to improve male friendliness in nursing programs.

Emotional Labor and its Related Factors in Nurses in the Outpatient Department
Eun-Jeong Ma, Kuemsun Han
STRESS. 2020;28(3):160-166.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.160
  • 959 View
  • 7 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF

본 연구는 외래근무 간호사의 감정노동과 관련요인의 관계를 규명하기 위한 서술적 상관관계연구이다. 대상자는 서울, 경기 지역 대학병원에서 근무하는 외래간호사 236명으로 하였으며, 감정노동과 관련요인(직무자율성, 사회적 지지, 자아존중감, 감성지능, 정서상태, 지각된 감정요구)에 대한 척도를 사용하였다. 지각된 감정 요구도가 높을수록 감정노동 정도가 높고, 직무자율성, 자아존중감이 높을수록 감정노동 정도가 낮게 나타났다. 감정노동 설명 요인을 확인하기 위한 다중회귀분석 결과, 자아존중감과 지각된 감정요구는 감정노동을 30.9% 설명하는 것으로 나타났다. 이에 따라 간호관리자와 병원경영자는 외래근무 간호사의 감정노동과 관련요인의 부정적 효과를 최소화하고, 감정노동을 감소시키기 위한 교육프로그램 개발이 요구된다.

Effects of Social Support, Pregnancy Stress, and Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life in Pregnant Women
Hyun Jung Kim, Hee Sun Kang
STRESS. 2021;29(2):140-148.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2021.29.2.140
  • 541 View
  • 24 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between social support, pregnancy stress, and anxiety of pregnant women and to determine their effect on health-related quality of life.

Methods

A total of 202 pregnant women participated in this study. The collected data were analyzed by the frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation, independent t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis using the STATA/IC 15.1 program.

Results

As a result of this study, the major factors affecting the health-related quality of life of pregnant women were identified as anxiety, educational level, social support, and marital satisfaction. Social support has a positive effect on the health-related quality of life of pregnant women (β=0.27, p< .001), but anxiety had a negative effect (β=−0.56, p<.001).

Conclusions

When planning nursing interventions to improve the health-related quality of life of pregnant women, strategies for lowering the anxiety and improving the social support of pregnant women should be considered.

Experiences of Case Managers Who Provide Residential Services to People with Mental Disorders Living in Independent Housin
Hee-Jung Kim, Hee-Young Oh, Hyeon-Joo Lee
STRESS. 2020;28(4):221-229.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.221
  • 344 View
  • 10 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

Housing is the most basic right for everyone and a significant factor in the lives of people with mental disorders. The purpose of this study is to explore the case management experiences of mental health professionals who provide housing services to people with mental disorders living independently. This study aims to contribute to the establishment of a housing support service system for people with mental disorders.

Methods

Three focus group interviews were conducted with 16 community mental health professionals in three groups. Qualitative descriptive methods and qualitative content analysis were used.

Results

The data were analyzed in 3 domains (client, system, case manager), 5 categories (positive changes in the client, limits and crises of independent living, independent housing support system establishment, improving efficacy and capacity, new insight), and 10 subcategories.

Conclusions

According to the results, the most important aspect is to strengthen housing support, which forms the basis for the recovery of people with mental disorders, and establish a policy system to secure quantitative independent housing. To reliably provide support for residential services, it is essential to establish a system and present a case management model specialized in residential services. Further, practical measures are needed to secure the expertise of case managers and strengthen their capabilities. Above all, case managers should act as independent supporters who recognize the client’s responsibility and autonomy, without monitoring and controlling, not only in the process of recovery but also in crisis situations that people with mental disorders living in independent housing experience.

Meta-Analysis of Correlations among the Subfactors of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale
Minseong Jeon, Jaeeun Shin, Taehun Lee
STRESS. 2021;29(3):187-198.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2021.29.3.187
  • 684 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF
Relationships among Person-Centered Care Competence, Empathy, Mindfulness and Difficulties in Emotional Regulation among Undergraduate Nursing Students
Hee Kyung Chang, Young Joo Do, Sang Mi Han, Bo Ram Kim
STRESS. 2021;29(2):97-105.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2021.29.2.97
  • 487 View
  • 23 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aimed to identify the relationship between person-centered care competence, empathy, mindfulness, and difficulties in emotional regulation among undergraduate nursing students.

Methods

The subjects of this study were 220 undergraduate nursing students from three colleges in Gyeongsangnam-do. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, Independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Scheffé test with SPSS/WIN 21.0.

Results

The mean scores of person-centered care competence, empathy, mindfulness, and difficulties in emotional regulation were 3.82±0.51, 3.48±0.36, 4.17±0.37, 1.46±0.61, respectively. Empathy (r=.33, p< .001) and mindfulness (r=.14, p=.046) were significantly correlated with person-centered care competence.

Conclusions

The results indicate that variables related to person-centered care competence are empathy and mindfulness. Therefore, educational programs for increasing person-centered care competence should include strategies that can be developed to promote and sustain empathy and mindfulness among nursing students.

Effects of Spiritual Well-Being and Spiritual Care Competence on Spiritual Nursing by Nurses Caring for Cancer Patients
Yuri Song, Young Suk Park
STRESS. 2020;28(4):246-253.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.246
  • 376 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This is a cross-sectional survey to explore the effect of spiritual well-being and spiritual care competence on performing of spiritual nursing by nurses caring for cancer patients.

Methods

The participants were 214 nurses with experience of caring for cancer patients for more than one year. The data were collected by an online survey using the spiritual well-being scale, spiritual care competence scale, and spiritual nursing scale.

Results

The factors influencing the performing of spiritual nursing were communication (β=0.36, p<.001), satisfaction from spiritual nursing (β=0.21, p=.001), importance of religion (β=0.18, p=.013), existential well-being (β=0.18, p=.010), and knowledge acquisition of spiritual nursing (β=0.14, p=.033). The explanatory power of these variables on performing of spiritual nursing was 41.1%. When spiritual nursing was not carried out, 42.6% of nurses felt sorry and pitiful towards the patient; and 46.4% pointed out the difficulties in working environment that posed an obstacle.

Conclusions

We should develop an integrated program on spiritual nursing improvement, focusing on these key factors, to enhance the performance of spiritual nursing for cancer patients and to verify its effectiveness.

Effects of a Healing Rhythm System Based on ECG Waveform Simulation on Stress, EEG, Heart Rate, and Anxiety in University Students; A Randomized Controlled Trial
Jae Kyeum Lee, Ik-Lyul Bae
STRESS. 2020;28(4):237-245.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.237
  • 433 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study is a randomized control trial (RCT) to compare the effects of the electrocardiogram waveform simulation-based Healing Rhythm System on stress, electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate, and anxiety on healthy college students. Healthy college students without any disease were recruited. A total of 68 participants were collected and analyzed in 31 experimental groups, 17 placebo group, and 20 control group.

Methods

The analysis method was repeated measurement of ANOVA and it was conducted 8 times in total. The effect measurement was checked before and after exposure to stressors and six times every five minutes after intervention.

Results

The results of the study showed that stress was significantly different in the experimental group at 10 minutes (F=4.33, p=.017) and 15 minutes after the intervention, and the EEG was significantly different in the experimental group at the relative alpha Fp1, F3 (F=5.753, p=.005) after the intervention, and the heart rate was significantly different in the experimental group at 15 minutes and 20 minutes (F=3.586, p=.033). The anxiety was significantly different in the experimental group after the pre and post-treatment of stressors (F=18.609, p<.001).

Conclusions

Therefore, HR system will be widely used as a program to induce calming to healthy university students in stressful situations.

The Structural Relationships among Optimism, Distress Tolerance, Grief Avoidance, Intrusive Rumination, Deliberate Rumination, and Psychological Well-Being on Undergraduates Exposed to Loss
La Yeoung Kim, Jin Yi Jang
STRESS. 2020;28(3):107-117.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.107
  • 486 View
  • 12 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study sought to analyze the structural relationships between optimism, distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and psychological well-being among undergraduates who have experienced a loss.

Methods

Subjects comprised 435 university students (258 females and 177 males), with their duration of grief experience and the elapsed period from when the loss occurred having been taken into consideration.

Results

Distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, and deliberate rumination mediated the relationship between optimism and psychological well-being sequentially. Additionally, there were significant differences between the “less than 6 months” and “more than 6 months” groups in the structural relationships between optimism, distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and psychological well-being.

Conclusions

The direct path of grief avoidance to psychological well-being was not significant, but it was found to have a significant effect through the sequential mediations of intrusive rumination and deliberate rumination. This result suggests the need for active intervention to allow people to face and cope with life after a loss, without avoiding the loss experience.

Subjective Happiness according to Temperament and Character Type of Nursing Students
EunJoo Kim, Geunmyun Kim
STRESS. 2020;28(2):76-83.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.2.76
  • 674 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

Happiness is an issue on college campuses because college is a time of transition to adult and professional life. In particular, nursing college students feel an excessive burden on patient care and relationships with medical staff in heavy academic stress and clinical practice at universities, causing psychological disorders such as tension, anxiety, depression, etc. due to these problems. The purpose of this study is to identify the temperament and personality types of nursing college students and to identify the factors that affect each type of subjective happiness.

Methods

The research method used TCI-RS to identify the temperament and character, and subjective happiness was measured using Oxford’s happiness sensitivity tool. The statistical methods utilized the methods of technical statistics, ANOVA, and multiplicity.

Results

The percent of below 30 percentile of self-transcendence (ST) and persistence (P) were 48.4%, 43.7% whereas The percent of above 70percentile correspondence (CO), self-directedness+cooperativeness (SC), and reward dependence (RD) were 50.7%, 49.3%, 39.0%. Factors affecting the subjective happiness of nursing college students are harm avoidance (HA) (β=−.16), p<.001), RD (β=27, p<.001), self-directedness (SD) (β=.59, p<.001) and 69% explained. Nursing college students had higher subjective happiness as autonomous students and higher social sensitivity. In comparison, the lower the hedging tendency, the higher subjective happiness.

Conclusions

To enhance subjective happiness of nursing college students, arbitration seems to be necessary considering the temperament and character of individual students.

Orthorexia Nervosa, Fear of Obesity
Hwi-Bin Cho, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2020;28(2):68-75.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.2.68
  • 392 View
  • 12 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

The following study was designed to identify the aspects of orthorexia nervosa in Korea and the relationship between orthorexia nervosa and fear of obesity to establish the basis for diagnosis of orthorexia nervosa.

Methods

We collected Dusseldorf Orthorexia Scale (DOS), perceived suspectibility and severity to obesity, fear of obesity, Korean Overall Body Esteem Scale (K-OBES), body mass index (BMI), subjective evaluation of obesity degree, body satisfaction, reason for diet and demographic characteristics from 321 adults and then analyzed the data using SPSS 23.0.

Results

The results showed that perceived severity to obesity and subjective evaluation of obesity degree was negatively correlated with DOS and had significant effect on DOS. These findings suggest orthorexia nervosa is not behavior to prevent and manage obesity. Also, the relationship between DOS and demographic characteristics such as gender and age and psychological variable such as fear of obesity, body esteem and satisfaction was not significant.

Conclusions

Orthorexia nervsoa is an independent condition that distinguishes it from anorexia nervosa, which shows a fear of obesity, a disturbance in the way to experience their body and difference between sex. Last, the limitations and implication for future work are discussed.

The Relationships between Academic Burnout, Mental Health, Parental Achievement Pressure, and Academic Demand in High School Students
Yeon Ok Yeom, Youl Pyo Hong, Kyeong Min Kim, Young Lim Lee, Myung Ho Lim
STRESS. 2020;28(2):61-67.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.2.61
  • 461 View
  • 15 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between academic burnout, mental health, parental achievement pressure, and academic demand in high school students.

Methods

For these aims of this study, data were collected from 430 students (185 males, 245 females) in three Korean high schools. It was used Korean Academic Burnout Scale, Parental achievement pressure, academic demand, and Symptom Check List-47. The research method used t-test to find out the difference of each variable according to academic burnout, and the variables predicting academic burnout through hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

Results

As a result of correlation analysis, academic burnout showed negative correlation with achievement, and high positive correlation with all variables of mental health and academic demand. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that academic burnout affects achievement, academic demand and depression in the subfactors of mental health.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that interventional efforts are needed for these emotional factors.

A Study on Character Strength and Subjective Happiness of Oncology Nurses
So Li Kim, Young Suk Park
STRESS. 2020;28(1):33-39.   Published online March 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.1.33
  • 376 View
  • 7 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study is to analyze characteristics of character strengths and effect factors of subjective happiness of oncology nurses. This research was conducted on the theoretical background of positive psychology.

Methods

This study was a cross-sectional study that data were collected from 182 oncology nurses working in a cancer hospital with 500 beds from January to March, 2017. The research instruments were self-reported questionnaires of VIA-IS and Subjective Happiness Scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis.

Results

The average of items about total score of character strengths was 3.38 (±0.29) on the 5-point Likert scale and about subjective happiness was 4.95 (±0.90) on the 7-point Likert scale. Signature strengths of the subjects were classified by six sub-areas of character strengths, frequency of humanity was highest and followed by courage. The level of subjective happiness has significant positive correlations with character strengths. The factors that affect subjective happiness of oncology nurses were job-satisfaction and total score of character strengths. The explanatory power of these factors on the subjective happiness was 34.0%.

Conclusions

We recommend to develop a happiness enhancing program focused on job-satisfaction and character strengths for oncology nurses and to verify their effectiveness.

The Relationship between Mindfulness and Shame: Moderated Mediating Effect of Self-Blame and Self-Compassion for College Students
Yong Hee Kim
STRESS. 2020;28(1):17-24.   Published online March 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.1.17
  • 491 View
  • 21 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study was to explore the moderated mediating effect of self-compassion through self-blame on the relationship between mindfulness and shame.

Methods

A total of 315 college students participated in this study by completing the following questionnaires: Mindfulness Scale, Depressive Experience Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale, State Shame and Guilt Scale. Data were analyzed through SPSS22.0 and its macro. The main findings were as follows.

Results

First, the result of bootstrapping indicated that self-criticism partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and shame. Second, hierarchical regression and slope analyses revealed the moderating effect of self-compassion on the relationship between self-criticism and shame. Finally, the results indicated that self-compassion moderated the mediating effect of mindfulness on shame through self-criticism.

Conclusions

Contributions of this study to an integrative understanding of the process of self-compassion was considered useful for future therapeutic intervention. Limitation and suggestions was also discussed.


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