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Volume 30(2); June 2022
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Review Article
Stress Management among Health Professional during COVID-19
Kuem Sun Han, Soo Yeon Lee, Ji Eun Kim, Youn Jung Jang
STRESS. 2022;30(2):53-59.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.53
  • 108 View
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Abstract PDF
Stress and its management among health professionals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a social issue. Stress in health professionals is caused not only by personal events but also by managing patients with COVID-19. The present study aimed to find effective interventions for managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals. As a result of a literature search, there were five studies related to interventions for managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals between 2020 and 2022. These interventions included mobile phone-based cognitive behavior therapy, music therapy, emotional freedom techniques, and safety group programs for stress management. These interventions were identified as being effective in managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals.
Original Articles
Development and Validation of a Brief Measure of Hardiness for the Korean Population
Kyung Hyun Suh
STRESS. 2022;30(2):60-68.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.60
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  • 7 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study developed and validated a brief tool to efficiently measure hardiness in the Korean population, considering that no such valid tool is available in Korean.
Methods
Data for item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were obtained from 343 college students and data for internal consistency and confirmatory factor analyses were obtained from 570 college students. Test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and criterion-related validity were determined.
Results
Excellent model fits were shown for the 12-item brief measure of hardiness (BMH) with the following three factors: commitment (e.g., “When I open my eyes in the morning, I look forward to the day.”), self-directedness (e.g., “My decisions shape my life.”), tenacity (e.g., “I believe that failure is the mother of success.”). Each subscale consists of four items, using a six-point Likert scale. Cronbach’s α for commitment, self-directedness, tenacity, and the total BMH were .91, .85, .89, and .88, respectively. The BMH test−retest coefficient was .77, suggesting reliabilty of this tool. Analyses of the criterion− related validity revealed that the the BMH score was reasonably correlated with the scores on some sub-scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory.
Conclusions
Although other standardized scales may be required for diagnostic purposes, this study highlights the utility of the BMH as a brief and useful tool with relatively simple items to measure hardiness as a personality trait in the Korean population for research purposes.
Time Management, Quality of Life, and Work-Life Balance Based on Temperament of Workers
Yuseung Choi, Yejin Cho, Yeeun Hwang, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2022;30(2):69-74.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.69
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Abstract PDF
Background
Temperament plays an important role in adapting to different environments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences between temperament clusters, time management behavior, quality of life, and work-life balance.
Methods
A total of 216 participants (male=56, female=160, mean age: 31.92 years) completed questionnaires measuring temperament, time management behavior, quality of life, and work-life balance.
Results
Data from the study shows that temperamental profiles are classified into three groups. The profile of “Adaptive Solver” was associated with the most beneficial traits, and that of “Chronic Worrier” was associated with the most disadvantageous traits.
Conclusions
The findings of this study confirm that temperaments are related to psychological adjustment. This study provides an implication for considering individual differences in the intervention for psychological adaptation of workers.
The Parallel Multiple Mediating Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Loneliness in the Relationship between Temperaments, Depression, and Anxiety while Working from Home
Yeeun Hwang, Yejin Cho, Yuseung Choi, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2022;30(2):75-84.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.75
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  • 11 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
As the number of people working from home has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to understand workers’ stress and psychological state while working from home. Work-family conflict and loneliness may be related to working from home, and they could be experienced differently depending on individual traits. Therefore, this study examined the parallel multiple mediating effects of work-family conflict and loneliness in the relationship between personal temperaments and negative emotions such as depression and anxiety.
Methods
Data were collected online from people currently working from home for at least one month, more than once per week. They answered K-DASS-21, UCLA loneliness scale, Work-Family Conflict, and FCB-TI. Only four temperaments were used in the statistic step: Briskness and Sense sensitivity as protective factors and Perseveration and Emotional reactivity as vulnerable factors. The multiple mediating effects were analyzed independently by using the PROCESS macro.
Results
Firstly, Briskness and Sense sensitivity were found to negatively affect depression and anxiety while working from home by significantly mediating work-family conflict and loneliness. Thus, these temperaments would be protective factors while working from home. Secondly, Perseveration and Emotional reactivity positively influenced both negative emotions by mediating two mediation variables, which means that both temperaments are vulnerable factors.
Conclusions
The results suggest that personality traits can impact how people experience stress and negative emotions in working situations, leading to negative psychological states. Consequently, personal temperaments would be important to understand relationships between environments and internal experiences.
The Experience of Killing and Health in Late Life: Findings from Korean Vietnam War Veterans
Hyunyup Lee, Sungrok Kang
STRESS. 2022;30(2):85-91.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.85
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  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
The current study aimed to examine the effects of combat exposure and killing on mental and subjective physical health later in life among Korean Vietnam War veterans.
Methods
The data were collected from 342 male veterans with a mean age of 72 years (SD=2.57). Veterans were divided based on their histories into three groups: no experience (Group 1), combat exposure only (Group 2), and both killing and combat exposure (Group 3). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined group differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hostility, and perceived physical health.
Results
The ANOVAs showed that PTSD, anxiety symptoms and hostility were most prevalent among the veterans in Group 3 (both killing and combat exposure). No significant differences were found between Groups 1 and 2. Perceived physical health was highest among the veterans in Group 1 (no experience). There were no differences between Groups 2 and 3. Even after controlling for the impacts of optimism and social support after homecoming, these results were similar.
Conclusions
The findings indicate that killing experience and combat exposure should be considered in designing interventions for veterans deployed into active combat zones.
The Influence of Mothers’ Acculturative Stress on Adolescents' Depression in Multicultural Families: The Moderating Effect of Sex
RaeHyuck Lee
STRESS. 2022;30(2):92-97.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.92
  • 35 View
  • 7 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
With the increasing number of multicultural adolescents, concerns about their healthy development are also on the rise. This study aimed to examine the influence of mothers’ acculturative stress on adolescents’ depression in multicultural families with respect to the moderating effect of sex.
Methods
A series of regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 1,052 adolescents from multicultural families composed of a foreign-born mother and a Korean father based on the 9th wave of the Multicultural Adolescents Panel Study (MAPS).
Results
First, foreign-born mothers’ acculturative stress positively and significantly influenced adolescents’ depression. When the level of acculturative stress increased, so did the level of depression. Second, the influence of mothers’ acculturative stress on adolescents’ depression was moderated by sex. The influence was larger for female than for male adolescents.
Conclusions
Based on its findings, this study discussed intervention strategies to address depression among multicultural adolescents.
Comparison of Stroke Knowledge, Health Beliefs, and Stroke Prevention Behavior between Early and Middle-Aged Adults
Eun Ko
STRESS. 2022;30(2):98-108.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.98
  • 33 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
The onset age of stroke is decreasing, leading to social loss. As such, primary stroke prevention is important. This study aimed to compare the stroke knowledge, health beliefs, and stroke prevention behavior between early and middle-aged adults.
Methods
In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a survey was conducted in three small cities in Korea from June to October 2020. The study used a structured self-report questionnaire that included items on stroke knowledge, including risk factors, warning signs, and urgent action, health beliefs, and stroke prevention behavior, as well as collected data on respondents’ demographic characteristics. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, 2 test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0.
Results
The participants included 104 early adults (aged below 40 years) and 143 middle-aged adults (aged 40∼64 years). The two groups showed a significant difference in their health beliefs scores. By contrast, they did not show a significant difference in their scores for stroke prevention behavior. However, their scores for health responsibility (t=−2.00, p=.047), nutrition (t=4.24, p<.001), and interpersonal relationships (t=2.04, p=.042) were significantly different.
Conclusions
Early and middle-aged adults showed differences in health beliefs and the stroke prevention behavior subfactors of health responsibility, nutrition, and interpersonal relationships. The present findings may be used when planning interventions or education programs for primary stroke prevention.
Influence of Pain Management Knowledge, Pain Management Self-Efficacy, and Empathic Capacity on Pain Management Performance of Nurses in Orthopedic Units
Ji-Eon Han, Jeonghyun Cho
STRESS. 2022;30(2):109-117.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.109
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Abstract PDF
Background
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain management knowledge, pain management self-efficacy, and empathic capacity on the pain management performance of orthopedic unit nurses.
Methods
This study employed a cross-sectional design using the survey. Participants were 110 orthopedic unit nurses from five university hospitals located in the B, U, and I metropolitan cities. Data collection was carried out from February 1, 2019 to March 6, 2019. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis with IBM SPSS WIN 25.0 program.
Results
Pain management performance had statistically significant positive relationships with pain management self-efficacy (r=.46, p<.001) and empathic capacity (r=.38, p<.001). Regarding the factors that have an influence on pain management performance, pain management self-efficacy (β=.33, p=.001), empathic capacity (β=.21, p=.024), and experience in pain management education (β=.18, p=.032) were the significant factors. These variables explained 26.1% of the pain management performance in orthopedic unit nurses.
Conclusions
The findings would be used as a basis for effective strategies for pain management by orthopedic unit nurses in the future.
Relationship between Maternal Touch, Maternal Self-Confidence, Infant Length, and Feeding Volume in High-Risk Infants: Touch on the Mind
Youn Jung Jang, Kuem Sun Han
STRESS. 2022;30(2):118-128.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.118
  • 43 View
  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
Childbirth is a physical and emotional experience. In particular, mothers of high-risk infants often exhibit low maternal self-confidence. Through interactions in the form of touch, maternal sensory stimulation provides comfort for both mother and baby. This study aims to investigate the association between maternal touch in the early postpartum period and the growth of infants as well as maternal self-confidence.
Methods
Thirty-six mother-infant dyads in a level III-IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were analyzed. Maternal touch on various body parts (extremities, face/head, and trunk) was observed, and infant length and feeding volume were assessed by direct measurement of the medical records. Maternal self-confidence was assessed using a questionnaire. Along with descriptive statistics, we conducted correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests.
Results
Although maternal self-confidence decreased over time, that of mothers with a high level of contact with the infant’s face/head or extremities decreased significantly less than that of mothers in the low-contact group. For the baby, the feeding volume of infants with a high degree of maternal contact on their extremities or trunk increased significantly compared with that of the low-contact group.
Conclusions
Mothers’ self-confidence may not improve as the infant grows, but can be strengthened by enhanced touch on the infant’s face/head. Touching the infant’s trunk is related to infant feeding. The research findings emphasize the importance of early maternal touch in the NICU environment and recommend the provision of maternal touch to appropriate body parts to achieve the desired objectives.

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