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Most-download articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Original Article
Influence of Pain Management Knowledge, Pain Management Self-Efficacy, and Empathic Capacity on Pain Management Performance of Nurses in Orthopedic Units
Ji-Eon Han, Jeonghyun Cho
STRESS. 2022;30(2):109-117.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.109
  • 2,777 View
  • 203 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain management knowledge, pain management self-efficacy, and empathic capacity on the pain management performance of orthopedic unit nurses.
Methods
This study employed a cross-sectional design using the survey. Participants were 110 orthopedic unit nurses from five university hospitals located in the B, U, and I metropolitan cities. Data collection was carried out from February 1, 2019 to March 6, 2019. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis with IBM SPSS WIN 25.0 program.
Results
Pain management performance had statistically significant positive relationships with pain management self-efficacy (r=.46, p<.001) and empathic capacity (r=.38, p<.001). Regarding the factors that have an influence on pain management performance, pain management self-efficacy (β=.33, p=.001), empathic capacity (β=.21, p=.024), and experience in pain management education (β=.18, p=.032) were the significant factors. These variables explained 26.1% of the pain management performance in orthopedic unit nurses.
Conclusions
The findings would be used as a basis for effective strategies for pain management by orthopedic unit nurses in the future.
Review Article
Non-Contact Nursing Education in Communication and Group Counseling: Current Status and Future Directions
Kuem Sun Han, Soo Yeon Lee, Ji Hye Shin
STRESS. 2023;31(4):149-157.   Published online December 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.4.149
  • 662 View
  • 38 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
In nursing, the utilization of diverse therapeutic communication and counseling techniques is crucial for effective nursing care. This study critically evaluated the present state of therapeutic communication and counseling education for nurses so as to explore the applications of non-face-to-face educational methods and to propose potential future directions for nursing education.
Methods
This study targeted academic research published in either English or Korean between 2019 to August 2023 on the topics of communication and counseling education in nursing education.
Results
There were eight studies of non-contact education in communication or counseling published between 2019 and 2023. The review identified various educational interventions currently in use, such as online-based, blended learning, simulation, and role-play education.
Conclusions
Among the various non-contact educational approaches, education based in the Metaverse shows promise due to its ability to offer real-time supervision and a wide range of virtual scenarios. Therefore, we suggest the incorporation of the Metaverse in group counseling education to enrich the learning experience.
Original Articles
Validation of the Korean Adaptation of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (K-STAXI-2)
Kyum Koo Chon, Kyung Hyun Suh, Joonsuk YI, Sungwon Roh, Yongmi Lee, Sojung Kim, Euiyeon Kim, Ju Yul Lee, Aron Choi
STRESS. 2023;31(3):133-141.   Published online September 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.3.133
  • 663 View
  • 56 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to validate the Korean adaptation of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (K-STAXI-2).
Methods
The study included a sample of 307 normal adults and 81 comparable adult patients. The data were analyzed using factor analyses, internal consistency measures, assessments of convergent and discriminant validity, t-tests between groups, and test-retest reliability.
Results
(1) Exploratory factor analyses revealed clear-cut factors for anger experience (state anger and trait anger) and anger expression (anger expression-in, anger expression-out, anger control-in, and anger control-out); (2) correlation analyses between K-STAXI-2 and the Emotional Stress Inventory demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity; (3) t-test between the patient group and the normal adults group provided additional construct validity; (4) internal consistencies of the six subscales showed a satisfactory level of reliability (α=.81 to α=.94); and (5) test-retest reliability over four weeks showed a satisfactory level of reliability.
Conclusions
The results further support the reliability and validity of the K-STAXI-2, suggesting its usefulness in various fields such as medicine, nursing, psychology, addiction, organization, education, and criminal justice.
Test Linking of Suicide Risk Assessment Instruments: Comparing Cut-Off Scores for Suicide Risk
Hwajeong Yu, Yuhwa Han, Sungeun You
STRESS. 2023;31(1):25-36.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.1.25
  • 3,800 View
  • 125 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
Communicating the objective meaning of the cut-off criteria for high-risk among suicide risk assessment tools is challenging because they measure different aspects of suicide risk. This study aimed to provide comparable scores among widely used suicide assessment instruments by using test linking.
Methods
Linking was performed using the equipercentile method with the data of 400 adults. Then, for an independent sample of 165 adults, the validity of linking was tested by providing an overall percent agreement of group classification.
Results
Linking results indicated that the score of 4 on the C-SSRS corresponded to 8 on the DSI-SS and 16 on the SBQ-R, respectively. The overall percent agreement of group classification based on the cutoff score of 4 on the C-SSRS was high in both scales, supporting the validity of linking.
Conclusions
The study results provide comparable criteria for the high-risk group among the three measures. Mental health practitioners could utilize our results in identifying people at high suicide risk.
Qualitative Study on Patient Distress and Needs in Chronic Illness: Cardiovascular, Cerebrovascular, and Chronic Renal Diseases
Eun Jung Yang, Donghee Jeong, Bong-Jin Hahm, Eun-Jung Shim
STRESS. 2023;31(3):113-122.   Published online September 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.3.113
  • 508 View
  • 43 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
We examined various types of distress and needs experienced by patients with chronic illness.
Methods
We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 patients with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and chronic renal diseases.
Results
The majority of participants reported experiencing physical distress, such as pain from symptoms or after-effects. They also felt burdensome to others and saw a decrease in their social relationships because of physical limitations caused by their chronic illness. Besides symptom management, they expressed a need for psychological counselling to cope with psychosocial distress.
Conclusions
The findings suggest the importance of integrative management for patients with chronic illness, addressing both physical symptoms and psychosocial distress.
Relationship between Mindfulness and Stress Response in High School Students: Mediating Effect of Self-Regulation Ability
Yoonjung Choi, Mihee Lee, Jeongik Choi
STRESS. 2024;32(1):19-28.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2024.32.1.19
  • 355 View
  • 21 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study explored the applicability of mindfulness meditation as an intervention approach in school counseling for managing daily stress in high school students. The study investigated the mediating effect of self-regulation ability on the relationship between mindfulness and stress response.
Methods
Data from 244 high school students (119 men and 125 women) were used to examine the mediating effect, controlling for academic variables using Hayes’ (2013) Process Macro Model 4.
Results
There was a positive correlation between mindfulness and self-regulation abilities, and mindfulness and self-regulation abilities were negatively correlated with stress response. Moreover, for students who perceived higher academic achievement levels, self-regulation abilities were positively correlated, and stress response were negatively correlated. Results showed a full mediating effect of self-regulation ability on the adverse relationship between mindfulness and stress response. The mediating effects of self-regulation modes were differentially observed in the adverse relationship between mindful consciousness and attitude dimensions of stress response.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that when applying mindfulness meditation as a daily stress management strategy for high school students, enhancing their self-regulation ability should be the focus of intervention.
The Double-Mediating Effect of Interpersonal Competence and Social Support on the Relationship between ADHD Traits and Depression in Early Adulthood
Jae Sun An
STRESS. 2023;31(1):44-50.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.1.44
  • 1,263 View
  • 93 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study aims to analyze the relationship between interpersonal competence, social support, ADHD traits, and depression in early adulthood, and by using the double-mediation model, to examine the effect of the first two variables on the last two.
Methods
The participants comprised 146 male and 155 female adults aged between 19 and 34, from whom data was collected through the Korean version of the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, interpersonal competence and depression subscales of the mental health test developed by Suh et al., and social support scale developed by Iverson et al.
Results
The results showed that adult ADHD traits were negatively correlated with interpersonal competence and social support, and positively correlated with depression. In addition, interpersonal competence was positively correlated with social support and negatively correlated with depression, whereas social support was negatively correlated with depression. Finally, interpersonal competence and social support sequentially mediated adult ADHD traits and depression.
Conclusions
This sequential double-mediating effect is of great academic significance and suggests that improving interpersonal competence and social support may be effective in mitigating the negative effect of ADHD traits on depression in early adulthood.
Validating a Short Version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12)
Somin Lee, Myoung-Ho Hyun, Jaeeun Shin
STRESS. 2023;31(3):97-105.   Published online September 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.3.97
  • 670 View
  • 64 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study aims to validate the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12).
Methods
A comprehensive set of questionnaires, including the IUS-12, STAI-T, PSWQ, CES-D, and K-CSI, was administered and completed by 404 participants. The average age of the participants was 31.29 years (SD=9.18), comprising 114 men, 287 women, and 3 individuals identifying with the other gender. We conducted a factor analysis on the collected data and compared the fit indices of one-factor, two-factor, and bifactor models. Furthermore, a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis evaluated measurement invariance between the men’s and women’s groups. Correlational analyses were also conducted.
Results
Data from the study show that the bifactor model was the most appropriate, demonstrating good internal consistency. The Omega coefficients and explained common variance were computed to evaluate the dimensionality of the IUS-12, validating the use of the total score of the scale. Its factor model also showed that the measurement invariance sustained between two gender groups. The correlation analyses between the IUS-12 and other scales assessing attributes such as trait anxiety, worry, depression, and avoidance coping strategy supported convergent validity.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that the IUS-12 is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the intolerance of uncertainty. The study also discusses its limitations and offers recommendations for future research endeavors.
An Integrative Review of Psychosocial Intervention Programs for Infertile Females
Youjin Shin, Soo-Hyun Nam
STRESS. 2023;31(4):158-167.   Published online December 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.4.158
  • 564 View
  • 26 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study aims to analyze intervention studies conducted on infertile females in South Korea and research and research the core elements comprising these studies.
Methods
The integrative review was conducted based on the guidelines of Whittmore and Knafl, and included the following steps: problem identification, literature search, data evaluation, data analysis, and presentation. Next, six domestic databases were searched using keywords such as ‘infertility’, ‘intervention’, and ‘education’ in Korean and English, and published studies were reviewed according to specific criteria and quality assessment.
Results
Among 4,109 searched papers, 6 were selected for the final data analysis. A total of six interventions were conducted in the selected articles, and each strategy was variously categorized into cognitive, emotional, behavioral, relational, and physical aspects. All interventions were found to be effective in promoting psychosocial health in infertile females.
Conclusions
Despite the fact that female infertility is a major public health problem in Korea, the low number of articles reveals a relative lack of psychosocial intervention studies. Therefore, it is suggested that future studies incorporate physiological endpoints into psychosocial studies, and we hope that this study will serve as a basis for developing programs for infertile females in the future.
Review Article
Stress Management among Health Professional during COVID-19
Kuem Sun Han, Soo Yeon Lee, Ji Eun Kim, Youn Jung Jang
STRESS. 2022;30(2):53-59.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.2.53
  • 1,877 View
  • 183 Download
Abstract PDF
Stress and its management among health professionals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a social issue. Stress in health professionals is caused not only by personal events but also by managing patients with COVID-19. The present study aimed to find effective interventions for managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals. As a result of a literature search, there were five studies related to interventions for managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals between 2020 and 2022. These interventions included mobile phone-based cognitive behavior therapy, music therapy, emotional freedom techniques, and safety group programs for stress management. These interventions were identified as being effective in managing stress related to COVID-19 among health professionals.
Original Articles
Variables Associated with Self-Compassion among Nurses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Bokeung Peun, Heeseung Choi
STRESS. 2022;30(4):221-233.   Published online December 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.4.221
  • 1,379 View
  • 106 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to identify variables associated with nurses’ self-compassion and assess their effect sizes through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
Methods
Domestic and foreign literature were searched using the Prisma flow diagram; 17 papers were systematically reviewed, and 12 papers underwent meta-analysis.
Results
A total of 29 variables related to nurses’ self-compassion were extracted from the analyzed papers. Furthermore, 12 sub-variables of individual characteristics and 17 sub-variables of job and organizational characteristics were identified. The effect sizes were divided into positive and negative variables to estimate the strength of the relationship between variables related to nurses’ self-compassion. All positive variables showed a small effect size (effect size (ES)= .25). Among the positive variables, quality of life (ES=.45), which had a medium effect size, was most related to self-compassion. Conversely, all negative variables showed a medium effect size (ES=−.35). The negative variable most related to self-compassion was burnout (ES=−.48).
Conclusions
The results suggest that promoting self-compassion is essential as it relates to nurses’ work, mental health, and quality of life. Further studies are needed to verify the mediating effects of self-compassion between stressful events and mental health among nurses. Additionally, it is necessary to develop and apply an intervention related to nurses’ self-compassion that increases the effect of positive variables and decreases the impact of negative variables.
The Mediating Role of Sleep Problems in the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Quality of Life: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
Hansol Moon, Eun-Jung Shim
STRESS. 2023;31(4):175-181.   Published online December 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.4.175
  • 515 View
  • 19 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
We examined the mediating effect of sleep problems on the relationship between economic hardship (i.e., economic stress and subjective socioeconomic status) and quality of life (QOL).
Methods
We analyzed data from 232 students who completed all three self-report surveys over the course of the semester, employing a simple mediation model examined by the SPSS PROCESS Macro.
Results
The findings revealed that higher levels of economic stress at Time 1 (T1) were associated with higher levels of sleep problems at T2 which, in turn, were associated with a poorer QOL at T3. In contrast, subjective socioeconomic status at T1 was not associated with sleep problems at either T2 or QOL at T3.
Conclusions
The current results suggest that improving sleep problems may be effective in mitigating the negative impact of economic stress on QOL among university students.
Attention Bias to Emotional Expression: Variations Based on Anxiety Tendency and Depression Tendency
Yeongeun Kim, Yoonhyoung Lee, Jini Tae, Wonhye Lee
STRESS. 2023;31(2):73-80.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.2.73
  • 1,126 View
  • 60 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study examined whether automatic attention bias toward emotional stimuli differs among individuals with varying anxiety and depression levels in the non-clinical population.
Methods
A total of 494 participants from the community completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). The dot-probe task was conducted to compare attention biases when emotional stimuli appeared before the target versus neutral stimuli did.
Results
There were differences in attention bias based on the stimuli types, even among the non-clinical community. The anxiety tendency group showed attention bias towards positive expressions, while the depression tendency group showed attention bias toward negative expressions. The group with anxiety and depression tendencies showed mixed characteristics observed in both the anxiety and depression groups.
Conclusions
This study showed that attention bias toward emotional stimuli is an information-processing bias influenced by an individual’s internal state. This study contributes to the understanding of attention bias differences among groups based on anxiety and depression tendencies in non-clinical population of various ages.
The Moderating Effect of Perceived Psychological Support on the Relationship between Perceived Disaster Damage, Posttraumatic Stress, and Subjective Health Status among Disaster Victims
Ahram Im, Chin Kang Koh
STRESS. 2023;31(2):51-58.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.2.51
  • 669 View
  • 64 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study examined the relationship between perceived disaster damage, posttraumatic stress, and subjective health status after disasters and the moderating effect of perceived psychological support among disaster victims.
Methods
Data from 1,821 participants in the fourth ‘Follow-up Survey on Change of Disaster Victims’ conducted by the National Disaster Management Research Institute in 2019 were analyzed.
Results
The results showed that the perceived degree of disaster damage significantly impacted subjective health status after disasters; this effect was fully mediated by posttraumatic stress. Furthermore, perceptions of psychological support were found to moderate the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress.
Conclusions
Based on these findings, a discussion was suggested regarding future improvements in disaster-supporting policies.
The Effect of Perceived Stress on Drinking Problem of Korean College Students: From the Perspective of Escape Theory
Dawon Yoon, Youngho Lee
STRESS. 2023;31(1):1-10.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2023.31.1.1
  • 1,782 View
  • 129 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
This study examined how the perceived stress of college students leads to drinking problems based on the Escape Theory.
Methods
A total of 485 college students were surveyed. A moderated mediation analysis was used to test the hypotheses.
Results
Since no significant correlation was found between perceived stress and drinking problem, the dependent variable was replaced with problematic drinking, a sub-factor of drinking problem. Escape from self fully mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic drinking. The interaction of perceived stress and dysfunctional self-focus was correlated with escape from self. Coping motives to drinking strengthened the pathways from escape from self to problematic drinking.
Conclusions
This study shows the need for therapeutic interventions to curb college students’ drinking problems. This study’s significance and limitations are also discussed.

STRESS : STRESS