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Volume 28(4); December 2020
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Original Articles
The Effect of Anger Rumination on Interpersonal Problem: The Moderated Mediating Effect of Dysfunctional Anger Expression and Effortful Control
Kyu Young Son, Eun Young Park
STRESS. 2020;28(4):179-187.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.179
  • 316 View
  • 6 Download
PDF
The Mediating Effects of Shame Experience in the Relationship between Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Individuals with Irritable Bowel Syndrome
I-Jin Choe, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2020;28(4):188-194.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.188
  • 346 View
  • 10 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of shame experience in the relationship between symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Methods

A total of 122 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for IBS responded to a questionnaire measuring shame experience, symptom severity, and QOL.

Results

Study results revealed that shame experience, symptom severity, and QOL were all positively correlated with IBS. Further, shame experience partially mediated the relationship between severity of the symptoms and quality of life among individual’s suffering with IBS.

Conclusions

These results suggest the shame experience influences the process linking severity of IBS symptoms to low QOL. Therefore, it is important to promote sensitivity to the shame experience among IBS in various clinical situations. This paper includes limitations and suggestions for future research directions.

The Mediating Effect of Self-Compassion in the Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty and Worry
Jaeyeon Woo, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2020;28(4):195-201.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.195
  • 330 View
  • 5 Download
PDF
Types of Perceptions Regarding Professionalism of Physician Assistant
Geunmyun Kim, Junghyun Seo, Sunok Lee, Junhee Bae, Youngju Yang
STRESS. 2020;28(4):202-212.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.202
  • 286 View
  • 8 Download
Abstract PDF

The present study examined the different types and characteristics of professionalism recognized by physician assistants. This study utilized Q methodology. A total of 12 physician assistants were interviewed and 77 Q-populations were constructed by referring to the interview data and related literature. After extracting a total of 35 Q statements, 30 participants sorted Q statements. Four types of perceptions about the professionalism of physician assistants were identified: “system establishment-oriented,” “identity seeking,” “role conflict,” and “skepticism recognition.” Confirmation of these four types can be interpreted as reflecting not only the positive and negative attitudes toward professionalism but also the diverse subjectivity that physician assistants have in their occupation. To have positive professionalism, it is necessary to develop an educational program that considers the characteristics of the types of perceptions derived from this study.

Relationship among Perceived Male Friendliness Nursing Programs, Gender Role Stereotype, and Major Satisfaction in Korean Male Nursing Students
Sunhee Cho, So-Hi Kwon, In Suk Rho
STRESS. 2020;28(4):213-220.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.213
  • 650 View
  • 9 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aimed to evaluate the perceived male friendliness in nursing programs and to identify the relationship of this with gender role stereotype and major satisfaction.

Methods

A convenience sample of 193 male nursing students was recruited for the cross-sectional survey design. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA with the SPSS/WIN 21.0.

Results

The mean scores of male friendliness, major satisfaction, and gender role stereotype were 2.94±0.35, 3.72±0.81, and 2.58±0.53, respectively. Perceived male friendliness in nursing programs was found to be correlated with gender role stereotype (r=−.215, p<.001). Participants who completed maternal nursing courses showed lower male friendliness (t=−4.53, p<.001).

Conclusions

Improving the male friendliness of maternal nursing courses and flexible gender role stereotyping should be considered when developing effective strategies to improve male friendliness in nursing programs.

Experiences of Case Managers Who Provide Residential Services to People with Mental Disorders Living in Independent Housin
Hee-Jung Kim, Hee-Young Oh, Hyeon-Joo Lee
STRESS. 2020;28(4):221-229.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.221
  • 344 View
  • 10 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

Housing is the most basic right for everyone and a significant factor in the lives of people with mental disorders. The purpose of this study is to explore the case management experiences of mental health professionals who provide housing services to people with mental disorders living independently. This study aims to contribute to the establishment of a housing support service system for people with mental disorders.

Methods

Three focus group interviews were conducted with 16 community mental health professionals in three groups. Qualitative descriptive methods and qualitative content analysis were used.

Results

The data were analyzed in 3 domains (client, system, case manager), 5 categories (positive changes in the client, limits and crises of independent living, independent housing support system establishment, improving efficacy and capacity, new insight), and 10 subcategories.

Conclusions

According to the results, the most important aspect is to strengthen housing support, which forms the basis for the recovery of people with mental disorders, and establish a policy system to secure quantitative independent housing. To reliably provide support for residential services, it is essential to establish a system and present a case management model specialized in residential services. Further, practical measures are needed to secure the expertise of case managers and strengthen their capabilities. Above all, case managers should act as independent supporters who recognize the client’s responsibility and autonomy, without monitoring and controlling, not only in the process of recovery but also in crisis situations that people with mental disorders living in independent housing experience.

The Moderating Role of Cultural and Leisure Activities in the Effects of Subjective Health Status on Life Satisfaction: Focus on Middle and Old-aged Single Households with Persons with Disabilities
Jongnam Lee
STRESS. 2020;28(4):230-236.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.230
  • 318 View
  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study is to verify how participation in cultural and leisure activities by middle- and old-aged households with people with disabilities affects subjective health status and life satisfaction.

Methods

Secondary analyses were conducted with 1,223 persons aged 50 years or over and living alone with disabilities, using the raw data from the 2017 National Survey on Persons with Disabilities.

Results

The results indicated that participation in cultural and leisure activities moderates the effects of subjective health status on life satisfaction.

Conclusions

This study revealed that policies and programs to encourage participation in cultural and leisure activities for persons with disabilities are needed for enhancing life satisfaction.

Effects of a Healing Rhythm System Based on ECG Waveform Simulation on Stress, EEG, Heart Rate, and Anxiety in University Students; A Randomized Controlled Trial
Jae Kyeum Lee, Ik-Lyul Bae
STRESS. 2020;28(4):237-245.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.237
  • 433 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study is a randomized control trial (RCT) to compare the effects of the electrocardiogram waveform simulation-based Healing Rhythm System on stress, electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate, and anxiety on healthy college students. Healthy college students without any disease were recruited. A total of 68 participants were collected and analyzed in 31 experimental groups, 17 placebo group, and 20 control group.

Methods

The analysis method was repeated measurement of ANOVA and it was conducted 8 times in total. The effect measurement was checked before and after exposure to stressors and six times every five minutes after intervention.

Results

The results of the study showed that stress was significantly different in the experimental group at 10 minutes (F=4.33, p=.017) and 15 minutes after the intervention, and the EEG was significantly different in the experimental group at the relative alpha Fp1, F3 (F=5.753, p=.005) after the intervention, and the heart rate was significantly different in the experimental group at 15 minutes and 20 minutes (F=3.586, p=.033). The anxiety was significantly different in the experimental group after the pre and post-treatment of stressors (F=18.609, p<.001).

Conclusions

Therefore, HR system will be widely used as a program to induce calming to healthy university students in stressful situations.

Effects of Spiritual Well-Being and Spiritual Care Competence on Spiritual Nursing by Nurses Caring for Cancer Patients
Yuri Song, Young Suk Park
STRESS. 2020;28(4):246-253.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.246
  • 376 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This is a cross-sectional survey to explore the effect of spiritual well-being and spiritual care competence on performing of spiritual nursing by nurses caring for cancer patients.

Methods

The participants were 214 nurses with experience of caring for cancer patients for more than one year. The data were collected by an online survey using the spiritual well-being scale, spiritual care competence scale, and spiritual nursing scale.

Results

The factors influencing the performing of spiritual nursing were communication (β=0.36, p<.001), satisfaction from spiritual nursing (β=0.21, p=.001), importance of religion (β=0.18, p=.013), existential well-being (β=0.18, p=.010), and knowledge acquisition of spiritual nursing (β=0.14, p=.033). The explanatory power of these variables on performing of spiritual nursing was 41.1%. When spiritual nursing was not carried out, 42.6% of nurses felt sorry and pitiful towards the patient; and 46.4% pointed out the difficulties in working environment that posed an obstacle.

Conclusions

We should develop an integrated program on spiritual nursing improvement, focusing on these key factors, to enhance the performance of spiritual nursing for cancer patients and to verify its effectiveness.

Factors Affecting Bereaved Spouses’ Quality of Life: A Systematic Review
Wonjung Noh, Songi Jeon
STRESS. 2020;28(4):254-261.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.254
  • 407 View
  • 23 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

This study is a systematic review to explore factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of spouses who have experienced bereavement.

Methods

We searched the literature in four foreign and one domestic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and RISS), using the search terms ‘bereavement’, ‘spouse’, and ‘quality of life’. A total of six articles were selected for final analysis by two researchers. Using the social ecological model, we categorized five domains affecting bereaved spouses’ QOL.

Results

Studies were published between 2001 and 2010 and were surveyed in a total of five countries. The QOL of the participants was measured using various measurement tools, such as health-related QOL and life satisfaction. Using social ecological models, the factors affecting QOL among bereaved spouses were determined to be individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and policy factors.

Conclusions

Based on the analysis results, points for consideration are suggested, including the research design and direction of future research.

The Relationship between Borderline Personality Traits and Reactive Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Experiential Avoidance
Jiyeon Lee, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2020;28(4):262-268.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.262
  • 448 View
  • 12 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of experiential avoidance in the relationship between borderline personality traits and reactive aggression.

Methods

In total, 160 participants (male N=57, female N=103, mean age 25.3 years) completed the questionnaires measuring levels of borderline personality traits, experiential avoidance, and reactive aggression.

Results

First, borderline personality traits had a significantly positive effect on experiential avoidance and reactive aggression. Experiential avoidance also had a positive effect on reactive aggression. Second, experiential avoidance had mediating effect between borderline personality traits and reactive aggression.

Conclusions

Based on the results of this study, it was confirmed that borderline personality traits could activate experiential avoidance, which leads to an increase in reactive aggression. Furthermore, current results suggested that in the treatment of reactive aggression in borderline personality traits, it was important to deal with experiential avoidance.

A Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Contextual Illness Support Scale
Dong Hee Jeong, Bong-Jin Hahm, Yeong Wook Song, Eun-Jung Shim
STRESS. 2020;28(4):269-275.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.269
  • 318 View
  • 12 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

Although social support for patients with chronic illnesses buffers the detrimental impacts of stress, if it is not provided appropriately, it can be a source of stress. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Contextual Illness Support Scale (K-CISS) for patients with rheumatoid disease.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey containing measures on social support, depression, anxiety, and quality of life was conducted with patients with rheumatoid disease (N=323).

Results

The construct validity was supported by the results of the exploratory structural equation modeling, confirming the original two-factor model (positive and problematic support) and significant correlations between these two factors and health-related variables (i.e., depression, anxiety, and quality of life). The concurrent validity was supported by the significant positive correlation between positive and social support that was measured by the Korean version of the DUKE-UNC functional social support questionnaire. The internal consistency of the K-CISS was satisfactory, with Cronbach’s α values of .96 and .72 for the subscales.

Conclusions

These results suggest that K-CISS is a reliable and valid measure of two aspects of social support.

Impact of Instability in Emotional Support Discrepancy from Significant Others on Daily Functioning in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) : A Diary Study
Hyunkyung Yoo, Taejin Jeong, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2020;28(4):276-284.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.276
  • 279 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

Daily functioning is an important aspect of chronic pain management, particularly for individuals living with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Previous studies have established that emotional support from significant others is beneficial for chronic pain patients. However, emotional support can be discrepant from one’s preference and can also fluctuate. Thus, the present study investigates the role of instability in emotional support discrepancy on the daily functioning of patients with CRPS.

Methods

Participants consisted of 21 CRPS patients. Google Forms was used to obtain daily diary ratings over 15 days.The mean square of successive differences was calculated as an indicator of instability of emotional support discrepancy. Statistical analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling.

Results

Hierarchical linear modeling reveals that the moderating effect of instability in emotional support discrepancy on the relationship between daily pain severity daily activity avoidance (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.57, p<.001), activity interference (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.98, p<.001), distraction (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.10, p= .007) was statistically significant.

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that instability in emotional support discrepancy reduces the buffering effect of emotional support.

Effects of Chronic Repetitive Restraint Stress on Acute and Long-Term Changes in Plasma Corticosterone Levels and Hypothalamic Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Rats
Ji Hye Park, Inhwan Lim, Seoul Lee
STRESS. 2020;28(4):285-291.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.285
  • 276 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

Immobilization as restraint stress is recognized as a psychologically stressful event. The stress responses alter both neuroendocrine and neurochemistry in an acute and long-term manner. We investigated whether the effect of chronic repetitive restraint stress could elicit levels of corticosterone and related neurochemical alterations.

Methods

Nine-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (the stressed group) were subjected to restraint stress in a hemi-cylindrical apparatus nocturnally in seven consecutive days. The handled control group was a sustained-controlled husbandry, and the stressed group was returned to the same home cage immediately after daily restraint sessions. On day 14, all subjects were sacrificed and neurochemical assessment was performed. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured on days 1, 7, and 14 following a 7-day recovery period. The activity of exploration was measured on day 5 of the stress session for 5 min to expose the novel open field. On day 14, tyrosine hydroxylase, c-fos, and NADPH-diaphorase immunohistochemistry was performed in the locus coeruleus and hypothalamic PVN (paraventricular nucleus) in the brain, respectively.

Results

The repetitive restraint stress elicits a retarded growth pattern and lowers locomotive activity at the acute phase. During the stressed session, higher levels of plasma corticosterone and nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) activity in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, the upregulated changes were prolonged seven days after the stress-free recovery period, chronically.

Conclusions

Chronic repetitive restraint stress may acutely alter neuroendocrine and behavioral changes via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and its phenomenon is sustained as a physiological maladaptation, depending on neurochemical alterations related to hypothalamic nNOS activity.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Characteristics of Korea Coast Guard Members According to Ship Working Period
Hyun Ho Lee, Eun Ju Bae, Un Kyoung Ahn, Min Sun Kim, Kyeoung Min Kim, Myung Ho Lim
STRESS. 2020;28(4):292-299.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.292
  • 292 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

This study sought to investigate the personality and symptoms of Korean Coast Guard members.

Methods

A total of 136 Korea Coast Guard members were targeted and asked to accomplish the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) via the software SPSS version 23.0.

Results

Korea Coast Guard members who worked on the ships for more than five years scored higher on the PD (psychopathic deviate), RC3, CYN (cynicism), and ASP (antisocial practices) scales of the MMPI than the group who worked for less than 5 years.

Conclusions

The findings suggest that members of the Korea Coast Guard may show significant antisocial score differences according to their ship working period and that a preventive approach is necessary to address this. These results suggested that the Korea Coast Guard may show significant antisocial score differences according to the ship working period, and that a preventive approach is necessary accordingly.


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