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Volume 28(3); September 2020
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Original Articles
The Structural Relationships among Optimism, Distress Tolerance, Grief Avoidance, Intrusive Rumination, Deliberate Rumination, and Psychological Well-Being on Undergraduates Exposed to Loss
La Yeoung Kim, Jin Yi Jang
STRESS. 2020;28(3):107-117.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.107
  • 486 View
  • 12 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

This study sought to analyze the structural relationships between optimism, distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and psychological well-being among undergraduates who have experienced a loss.

Methods

Subjects comprised 435 university students (258 females and 177 males), with their duration of grief experience and the elapsed period from when the loss occurred having been taken into consideration.

Results

Distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, and deliberate rumination mediated the relationship between optimism and psychological well-being sequentially. Additionally, there were significant differences between the “less than 6 months” and “more than 6 months” groups in the structural relationships between optimism, distress tolerance, grief avoidance, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and psychological well-being.

Conclusions

The direct path of grief avoidance to psychological well-being was not significant, but it was found to have a significant effect through the sequential mediations of intrusive rumination and deliberate rumination. This result suggests the need for active intervention to allow people to face and cope with life after a loss, without avoiding the loss experience.

Effects of Patient Safety Culture on Nurse Burnout in the Operating Room
Ye Sol Lee, Chin Kang Koh
STRESS. 2020;28(3):118-124.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.118
  • 413 View
  • 29 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

The occurrence of nurse burnout, which could affect the quality of nursing, largely depends on the characteristics of a hospital department. An operating room (OR) environment comes with a high possibility of nurses committing errors, and OR nurses respect the value of patient safety and perform their safety management duties as needed. Although patient safety culture in an OR might affect OR nurse burnout, there is insufficient evidence to show such an association.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital in Seoul, South Korea in 2019. One-hundred and twenty-two OR nurses completed the Safety Attitude Questionnaire Korean version 2 and Maslach Burnout Inventory that measured perceived levels of patient safety culture and burnout, respectively.

Results

Correlation analyses found that lower burnout was significantly associated with better patient safety culture. Through a multiple regression, the predictors of emotional exhaustion in patient safety culture identified were job satisfaction (β=−.524, p=.000) and working conditions (β=−.282, p=.015). Working conditions predicted depersonalization (β=−.323, p=.009), while job satisfaction predicted lack of personal accomplishment (β=−.250, p=.004). Meanwhile, years in the unit (β=−.397, p=.001) predicted lack of personal accomplishment.

Conclusions

These results suggest an important role for two dimensions of patient safety culture in mitigating burnout among OR nurses. It would be effective to improve working conditions in ORs by reducing the nurse-patient ratio, and to enhance job satisfaction among OR nurses by securing resources introduced by the conservation of resources theory.

Effect of Social Skills Training Programs for Adult Burn Patients
Kyung Mee Kim, Se Hee Hwang
STRESS. 2020;28(3):125-132.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.125
  • 314 View
  • 8 Download
Abstract PDF

본 연구는 사회기술훈련이 정서와 대인관계에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 알아보기 위해 25세 이상 65세 이하의 체표면적 20% 이상의 화상환자 24명을 대상으로 사회기술훈련 프로그램의 효과를 검증했다. 연구결과, 중재군은 사회기술훈련 프로그램 이후 정서가 유의하게 증가했고, 대인관계는 증가했다. 이는 사회기술훈련 프로그램이 화상환자의 사회기술 향상을 위한 프로그램으로 활용될 수 있으며 이를 위해 사회기술 향상을 훈련시킬 사람들을 양성하고, 프로그램에 대한 재정적인 지원이 필요함을 시사한다.

Nurses’ Night Shift Experience in Small-Medium Sized Psychiatric Hospitals
Young-Ah Kim, Hee-Jung Kim
STRESS. 2020;28(3):133-141.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.133
  • 317 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aimed to explore the experience of nurses who work in small-medium sized psychiatric hospitals.

Methods

This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Using content analysis, face to face interview data from 10 nurses working in two small-medium sized psychiatric hospitals were analyzed.

Results

Data analysis has been extracted into five domains (i.e., stress, crisis response, resource, support, and communication) and 11 subcategories (i.e., anxiety and tension, exposure to violence, workload, endure by myself, working in pairs principle is not followed, the replacement of a nurse’s vacancy with an assistant, lack of resources in emergencies, lack of compensation, lack of education for empowerment, lack of post-traumatic support, and non-cooperation).

Conclusions

Current research regarding night shift at private mental hospitals is insufficient. Prioritizing more nursing staff is required to improve the working environment. Nurses experienced anxiety, tension, exposure to violence, and excessive workload during the night shift, and endured these crises alone. In addition, an increasing number of nursing staff urgently felt the need to work in pairs and demanded more auxiliary staff for emergencies. Nurses also wanted sufficient compensation, education for empowerment, and post-traumatic support. Ultimately, cooperation with other departments is essential.

Parents’ Perceptions and Responses to Parent-adolescent Conflict Situations: A Mixed Methods Approach
Heeseung Choi, Sumi Kim, Heesung Ko
STRESS. 2020;28(3):142-152.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.142
  • 345 View
  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF

본 연구는 부모-자녀 관계와 관련된 양적 변수에 따라 구분된 각 그룹들에서 부모자녀 갈등의 주제, 갈등상황에서 부모의 인식과 반응의 질적인 차이를 확인하고자 시도되었다. 국내 5개 도시에서 청소년 자녀를 둔 부모 103명이 부모효능감, 부모-자녀 의사소통, 부모-자녀 관계, 부모-자녀 갈등, 부모스트레스 관련 온라인 설문에 참여하였고, 이들은 청소년 자녀와의 갈등상황을 직접 기술하였다. 5개 변수의 군집분석결과 두 개의 그룹으로 분류되었고 두 그룹의 부모들은 모두 청소년 자녀와 갈등상황에서 실망, 분노, 걱정, 좌절 등의 감정을 경험하였으나 갈등을 인식하고 반응하는 양상에서는 차이가 있었다. 본 연구결과는 향후 부모자녀 관계를 향상시키기 위한 부모교육프로그램 구성의 기초자료가 될 것이다.

The Moderating Effect of Self-Control in the Relationship between Daily Stress and SNS Addiction Tendency of Adolescents
Jung A Ko, Ji Young Kim, Hye Young Kim
STRESS. 2020;28(3):153-159.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.153
  • 531 View
  • 19 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

The purpose of the study was to test the moderating role of self-control in the relationship between daily stress and online social networking addiction of adolescents.

Methods

The daily stress scale, online social networking addiction scale, and self-control scale were administered to a sample of 225 adolescents. The data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and SPSS PROCESS macro.

Results

The results were as follows: First, correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship among daily stress, self-control, and online social networking addiction. Daily stress was significantly positively correlated with online social networking addiction. In contrast, self-control was significantly negatively correlated with daily stress. Second, the interaction between self-control and daily stress played a more prominent role in protecting against online social networking addiction in adolescents who reported lower daily stress than those who reported higher daily stress.

Conclusion

This result suggested that it is necessary to strengthen the positive aspects of self-control to adolescents who have difficulty managing their online social networking addiction.

Emotional Labor and its Related Factors in Nurses in the Outpatient Department
Eun-Jeong Ma, Kuemsun Han
STRESS. 2020;28(3):160-166.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.160
  • 958 View
  • 7 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF

본 연구는 외래근무 간호사의 감정노동과 관련요인의 관계를 규명하기 위한 서술적 상관관계연구이다. 대상자는 서울, 경기 지역 대학병원에서 근무하는 외래간호사 236명으로 하였으며, 감정노동과 관련요인(직무자율성, 사회적 지지, 자아존중감, 감성지능, 정서상태, 지각된 감정요구)에 대한 척도를 사용하였다. 지각된 감정 요구도가 높을수록 감정노동 정도가 높고, 직무자율성, 자아존중감이 높을수록 감정노동 정도가 낮게 나타났다. 감정노동 설명 요인을 확인하기 위한 다중회귀분석 결과, 자아존중감과 지각된 감정요구는 감정노동을 30.9% 설명하는 것으로 나타났다. 이에 따라 간호관리자와 병원경영자는 외래근무 간호사의 감정노동과 관련요인의 부정적 효과를 최소화하고, 감정노동을 감소시키기 위한 교육프로그램 개발이 요구된다.

Development and Evaluation of a Simulated Conflict Management Program on Inter-Professional Communication Skills
Yeonjae Jo
STRESS. 2020;28(3):167-177.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.3.167
  • 402 View
  • 20 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

This study aimed to develop a simulated educational program on conflict management communication skills and to evaluate the effects of the simulated program on nursing students.

Methods

The research design was qualitative and made use of surveys to gather data. Study participants included four professors from different nursing colleges, six registered nurses from different university hospitals, and five 4th year students from a nursing college.

Results

A simulated conflict management program scenario was developed to improve communication skills by presenting four consecutive situations involving a patient, doctor, insurance review staff, and head nurse. The appropriateness of the scenario content, flow, level of the scenario, educational objectives, learner activities, and evaluation tools were verified through expert opinion surveys and pilot tests. This simulated communication program enhanced students’ knowledge and confidence, cultivated communication skills, and provided educational satisfaction by creating an opportunity for them to integrate and apply their knowledge about communication through experiencing communication conflict situations that occur frequently in clinical practice.

Conclusions

The results of the simulated conflict management education program can contribute to nursing students’ communication skills and self-efficacy in terms of inter-professional communication.


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