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Volume 17(2); June 2009
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Original Articles
The Level of Perceived Stress of Life Events and Its Correlates for Community-dwelling Adults in Korea
Kuem-Sun Han, Jina Choo, Youn-Jae Oh, Il-Han Choo*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):91-98.   Published online July 1, 2009
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As society is getting industrialized and globalized, competitive endeavor for survival has been rising and being a threat to mental health toward people living in modern society. Perceived stress of life events may be a contributing factor to mental illness as well as physical illness. The purpose of our study is to identify the level of perceived stress of recent life events and to determine its gender-specific correlates among 933 residents in Ansan city. The Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) was administrated to assess the perceived of recent stress. As physical, psychological and socioeconomical variables, age, sex, marital status, education, job, religion, household income per month, the presence of family members having mental illness, and the number of cohabitants were collected as candidate correlates of total GARS scores. About one third of the residents (32%) showed the moderate or severe levels of total GARS scores and the highest levels of perceived stress in financial pressure among eight domains of GARS. Divorced/separated/widowed status was a significant and independent correlate for men, whereas both monthly household income and the presence of family members having mental illness were significant and independent correlates for women. Therefore, when planning a community-based program, identifying target groups vulnerable to stress and creating gender-specific strategies for promoting mental and physical health are needed. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:91∼98)
The Effects of Dance Movement Therapy Program on Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, Alexithymia of Neurosis Patients
Ok Hee Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):99-109.   Published online July 1, 2009
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This study was to investigate the effects of the Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) program on somatization, depression, state anxiety and alexithymia and to suggest intervention of Neurosis. The study was done from March 15th, 2005 to September 30th, 2005. The subjects were 30 female neurosis outpatients. The research design a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The tools included somatization (SCL-90-R), depression (BDI), Trait-State anxiety and Alexithymia (TAS-20K) scale. Using the SPSS/WIN 10.0 program, the collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test, T-test and Ancova. This DMT program was development by theory of Frued and Jung, methodology of Marian Chace and Mary Whitehouse and it was constructed 5steps per 1session in total 18 sessions. There was a significant difference in the somatization, depression, state anxiety, alexithymia scores between experimental group and control group. Contents of program were included as follows: Emotional Eexpression Movement, Improvisation Dance Movement, Mirroing, Symbolic and Active Imagination (Authentic Movement), Relaxation Stretching, Deep Breathing, Dance Drama, Rhythmic Dancing and Group Therapy with Background Music. Therefore, this program is regarded as a synthetical intervention and it is expected that the patients make an early recovery. In future, it is recommended that physiologic research on DMT be conducted, continuously. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:99∼109)
Dementia Caregivers' Stress, Stress Response, and Physical/Mental Health: Focused on the Moderate Effect of Self-Efficacy
Kyung-Hyun Suh, Woo-Lee An
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):111-120.   Published online July 1, 2009
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With quickly becoming an ageing society in Korea, Researchers investigated how family dementia caregivers' stresses and self-efficacy are related to their stress responses and physical/mental health, and the interaction of caregiving stresses and self-efficacy on caregivers' stress responses and health. The participants were 192 family caregivers (142 females) of demented patients lived in Seoul, whose average of age were 52.35 (SD=12.41). The various psychological tests were used to measure caregivers' stresses, self-efficacy, stress responses, perceived health, physical symptoms, depression, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. Results indicated that caregiving stresses were closely related to stress responses, physical and mental health. Caregivers' self-efficacy were positively related to perceived health and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed moderate effects of self-efficacy on relationships between caregivers' stresses and stress responses or physical/mental health. These results indicated buffering effects of self-efficacy on negative results in stress responses, physical symptoms, and subjective well-being of caregiving stresses with demented patients. For negative results of caregivers' stresses, such as stress responses or physical symptoms, differences by caregivers' stresses were less explicit in group with low self-efficacy, while difference of subjective well-being was only significant in group with high self-efficacy. These results were discussed phenomenologically based on previous studies with focusing on the promotion and intervention of dementia caregivers' health and quality of life. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:111∼120)
Body Change Stress and Psycho-Social Adjustment of the Survivors of Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients: The Moderating & Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem
Kyung-Moon Chang
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):121-130.   Published online July 1, 2009
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The purpose of this study is two-folds: One is to investigate how the factors of socio-demographic, disease related, and the self-esteem of the survivors of breast cancer patients with mastectomy treatment were related to their perceptions of body change stress and the selected areas of psycho-social adjustment (i.e., depression, social function/relationship, and sex life). The other is to investigate if the patients' self-esteem either moderates or mediates between their perceived body change stress and psycho-social adjustment. Total of 95 breast cancer patients received mastectomy treatment participated in this study. Results of the study are following: First, patients' self-esteem was more closely related to the level of body change stress as well as psycho-social adjustment than their socio-demographic and disease related factors. Second, significant moderating effects of self-esteem in the relations were found between body change stress and each of the three areas of psycho-social adjustments studied in this study. It indicates that high self-esteem may buffer the negative effect of body change stress whereas low self-esteem worsens it. Finally, self-esteem showed significant (partial) mediating effects in both of relations between body change stress and depression as well as social function/relationship. However, mediating effect of self-esteem in the relation between body change stress and sex life adjustment was not significant. The results found this study suggest that for the better understanding and help toward the survivors of breast cancer more internal variables and their executive functioning need to be investigated in future research. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:121∼130)
An Exploratory Study on Factors Affecting Quality of Life for the Elderly: Focusing on Socioeconomic and Social Capital Traits
Hong-Jik Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):131-141.   Published online July 1, 2009
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This study aims to explore the factors that affect the elderly's quality of life. Especially, it attempted to explore how the socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly and the social capital they had affect their quality of life. The subjects of this study were 229 elderly who lived in the Seoul metropolitan areas. The levels of quality of life was measured by the 8-item questionnaire and the social capital was measured by norm, trust, partnership in community, information sharing, and participation in community. Also, personal, familial, and human capital traits were introduced as socioeconomic natures of the respondents. This study conducted descriptive statistics analyses and multiple regression analyses to explore the determinants of quality of life for the elderly. Although the quality of life for the elderly were varied significantly according to their diverse socioeconomic and social capital natures, only level of education, subjective health condition, partnership in community, and information sharing were statistically significant predictors to the quality of life for the elderly in the total model. The result of this study shows us that elderly who were highly educated, who felt healthier, and who experienced more partnership and information sharing in their communities enjoyed higher quality of life than their counterparts. Therefore, more policy and program considerations should be took for elderly to strengthen their social capital as well as human capital in order to enhance their levels of quality of life. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:131∼141)
Development of a Scale for Measuring Effectiveness of Forest Experience
Hyun-Seob Cho&#;, Sung-Jae Kim&#;, Jin-Gyung Cha*, Sung-Min Cho*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):143-154.   Published online July 1, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to develop an Scale for Measuring Effectiveness of Forest Experience (SMEFE), which is psychometrically reliable and valid to administer. In order to develop an Scale, the preliminary SMEFE was developed through focus group discussion with participants, and verified them with 162 adults. The quality of correlation matrix in factor analysis was assessed by the results of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, construct validity was tested using principal component analysis (PCA) on Varimax rotation, and reliability was measured with Crombach's alpha. Based on the results of factor analysis, items with correlation coefficient of over .40 were selected, and finally 25 items were included in the final SMEFE. From the results of factor analysis of the 25 items were extracted 3 factors and the 3 factors (Emotional Competency Dimension, Spirituality Dimension, Prospect of Life Dimension) explained 64.53% of the total variance. Cronbach`s Ձ of the developed 25 items was as high as .91. By factor analysis of three categories, Cronbach's Ձ was .89, .90, and .87 showing high reliability for each sub-category. This newly developed scale was verified reliability and validity for measuring effectiveness of forest experience. This Scale is predict with applicable in a filed related to alcoholics. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:143∼153)
The Impact of Starting Time of Treadmill Exercise on c-Fos Expression in the Hippocampus of Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Rats
Sam-Jun Lee*, Il-Gyu Ko&#;, Dong-Hyun Kim&#;, Yong-Min Kim&#;, Dae-Young Kim&#;, Bo-Kyun Kim&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):155-161.   Published online July 1, 2009
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The transcriptional factor c-Fos has been used as a marker of neuronal activity. Brain injury is known to induce c-Fos expression in the neurons. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke. In the present study, we investigated the impact of starting time of treadmill exercise on ICH-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats. ICH was induced by injection of collagenase into the striatum using a stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the pre-exercise group were scheduled to run on a treadmill before ICH induction for 2 weeks. The rats in the post-exercise group were scheduled to run on a treadmill after ICH induction for 2 weeks. The rats in the pre- and post-exercise group were scheduled to run on a treadmill exercise starting 2 weeks before ICH induction until 2 weeks after ICH induction. The present results showed that c-Fos expression in the several hippocampal regions were significantly increased following ICH in rats. Treadmill exercise showed the suppressive effect on the ICH-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampal regions. The suppression on c-Fos expression by treadmill exercise was highest in the rats of the pre- and post-exercise group. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise starting before the ICH insult and continuing after ICH insult has a potent protective effect on ICH-induced brain damage, possibly by modulating c-Fos expression in the hippocampal regions. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:155∼161)
SNPs and Haplotypes of Ets variant 6 (ETV6) Gene Is Associated with Overweight/Obese in Korean Population
Kyung Hee Jung*, Sung Wook Kang*, Su Kang Kim*, Jeong Yoon Song&#;, Hyung Kyung Park&#;, Hyung Hwan Baik*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):163-168.   Published online July 1, 2009
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Ets variant 6 (ETV6) gene is known to be involved in a large number of chromosomal rearrangements associated with leukemia. In recent study, it is reported that excess body weight may be a risk factor for leukemia and overweight/obesity have greater risk of leukemia compared to non-overweight individuals. For a possible relation of the genetic polymorphism of ETV6 with overweight/obesity, we genotyped fifty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ETV6 using the Affymetrix Genotyping chip array in 206 overweight/obese and 152 normal subjects in the Korean population. Logistic and multiple regression models were employed to analyze the genetic contributions of polymorphisms. Of the fifty five polymorphisms, the four SNPs showed a significant association with overweight/obesity in 3 alternative models (codominant, dominant, and recessive models; p<0.05 after adjusting for age and sex) were rs2723825, rs17818048, rs2710304, and rs7296981. Two haplotypes of ETV6 (block 7: GGG; block 9: CCC) containing significant polymorphisms (rs17818048, rs2710304, and rs7296981) exhibited significant association with the risk of overweight/obesity. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in ETV6 may be associated with overweight/obese in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:163∼168)
Matrix Metallopeptidases (MMPs) Polymorphisms with Obese Patients in Korean Population
Ji Young Yoo*, Sung Wook Kang*, Su Kang Kim*, Jeong Yoon Song&#;, Joo-Ho Chung*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):169-173.   Published online July 1, 2009
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Health problems caused by obesity are emphasized around the world. Obesity related diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer are major causes of mortalities and morbidities. The matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM)-specific enzymes produced by bone and plasma cells. MMPs play an important role in the degradation and remodeling of the ECM. In the present study, the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MMP genes (MMP1, MMP7, MMP8, MMP12, MMP20, MMP26, and MMP27) and overweight/obesity in Korean population was investigated. For the analysis of genotyping, SNPAnalyzer, Helixtree, and SNPStats programs were used. In this study, we found that one SNP (rs2499953, of MMP26) was significantly associated with overweight/obesity (dominant model, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.05∼2.85, p=0.031). The rs2499953 SNP is located on exon 2 of the MMP 26 and exchanged in glutamic acid to lysine at amino acid position 43. Our study is the first to show a significant association between an SNP of MMP26 and overweight/obesity. In conclusion, the result suggests that MMP26 gene may be associated with overweight/obesity in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:169∼173)
Research Note
A Preliminary Study for Developing an Employee Assistance Program Based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
Young-Ah Kim, Bong-Keon Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):175-184.   Published online July 1, 2009
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The foreign countries are making effort to help employees manage personal & organizational stress through providing employee assistance program consisting of multi-components. However, our country lacks such a system. The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary study for developing an employee assistance program (EAP) based on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The preliminarily developed program consists of 4 sessions, with duration of 90 minutes for each session. Each session consists of video clips of KBS TV documentary entitled "Meditation makes mind relaxed" & a mindful yoga, MBSR programs, and some components of CT (cognitive therapy). The results of the pilot study were shown, in which 3 cases were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Recommendations for implementing this EAP based on MBSR were suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:175∼184)
Review Articles
Theoretical Understanding of Marital Conflict and Housewife Depression in Korean Family Using Object Relations
Kyeong Soon Park
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):185-197.   Published online July 1, 2009
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Recent researches show increasing correlation between marital conflicts and depression. This study aims to determine the role of marital conflict as a major factor causing depression in Korean married women using object relations theory. Object relations theory focuses on the importance of the initial mother-child relationship, which maintains a long-lasting effect on formation of the individual's personality and future relationships. According to Freud, depression is the withdrawal of libido from the lost object back into the ego. Winnicott explains the necessary psychosomatic relationship in childhood as a crucial part in early development of the ego. Dicks further developed the object-relations theory and applied it to couple and family therapy, claiming that the early object relationships unconsciously affect selection of the spouse and the relationship between married partners later on. This article attempts to explain that psychological conflicts between married partners and the depressive symptoms resulting from such conflicts are strongly related to inner psychic conflicts that can be attributed to early object relationships. Characteristic differences resulting from the cultural dimension will be taken into account. In Korea, the symptom has recently been named "Housewife Depression," but its presence is deeply marked in the traditional culture as "Hwabyung." The current study looks at this seemingly culture-specific phenomena using more analytic tools such as the object relation theory and the Scharff & Scharff marital conflict model built upon Fairbairn's ego concept, and provides detailed analysis regarding the meaning of such conflicts and symptoms in Korean family structure. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:185∼198)
Chronic Procrastination and Adjustment
Jeong-Ah Lee, Myoung-Ho Hyun
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):199-207.   Published online July 1, 2009
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Unnecessary delay of start and completion of a specific task may be considered as an active avoidant behavior which puts some endeavor into a wrong direction not toward a target activity but an alternative one. Chronic procrastination which refers to a variety of postponing behaviors in a diverse settings of daily life is related to psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, and low self-efficacy, and etc. In addition, chronic procrastination can produce low academic/job performance and health problems. Research on procrastination and its relation with various psychological factors has identified that procrastination is not laziness or a lack of time management skill but rather than a complex property with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional variables. In addition, as studies have found that procrastination has different characteristics in the cognitive, motivational, emotional process, attempts have been made to classify subtypes of procrastination. The investigation of typological characteristics will help us offer sophisticated and effective therapeutic interventions. For a better understanding of relation between procrastination and adaptation/health, future study needs to take a multiple perspective approach to process variables involving in the development of procrastination. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:199∼207)
Stress and Sleep
Jin-Kyung Oh, Insop Shim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(2):209-217.   Published online July 1, 2009
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Sleep is an essential component in health and the quality of life of individual. Normally, sleep pattern changes with stress system. Stress is known to be a common cause of short-term insomnia and insomniacs often complain that stress induces sleep problems. Studies suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. In addition, sleep and wakefulness is regulated by the aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Classically, activation of the HPA and/or the sympathetic nervous systems results in waking. In human beings or animals, these hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol or corticosterone, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, are associated with attention, vigilance and arousal. An increased awareness of the close interaction between sleep and stress systems is also emerging. The hypothalamus is now recognized as a key center for sleep regulation, with hypothalalmic neurontransmitter systems providing the framework for therapeutic advances. An updated understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, injury and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:209∼217)

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