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Volume 17(3); September 2009
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Original Articles
Survey on Mental Disorder Patients' Quality of Life and Family Caregivers' Burden and Their Satisfaction with Their Mental Public Health Service
Kuem-Sun Han, Youn-Jae Oh, Mee-Lan Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):219-225.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine mental disorder patients' quality of life and family caregivers' burden and their satisfaction with their mental public health service. The data were collected with questionnaires from 103 mental health disorders and 70 their families who lived Ansan, in Korea. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation. The scores on general quality of life of mental disorders are the highest and then physical health domain was the second highest. The scores on family burden are relatively higher than former result. In the case of caregiver's givers burden scores showed relatively high. At present both of them are satisfied with public mental health care service provided by district. However the mental disorders and their caregivers are the one who need the most financial support on mental health care. Based on these results we need to develop several programs such as empowerment of social relationship and communication skills for mental disorders. And also we suggest practical research and development in order to support financially on public mental health service. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:219∼225)
The Level of Stress of Dimensional Job Stress of Hospital Nursing Staff
Yu Kyung Ko
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):227-236.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine the level of stress of sub-dimensional job stress of staff nurses. This study surveyed 163 nurses in three general hospitals in Seoul and Gyung-gi province for two months starting in September 2004. The questionnaire consisted of 52 questions about job stress. The job stress was measured using 'The general job stress scale' developed by Kim WH(2002). The answers were on a scale rating of 5. This questionnaire consists of four domains relating to nursing activity, job environment, interpersonal relations, and hospital & administration management. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, the t-test, ANOVA, and tukey test using SAS. The average of staff nurses' job stress was 3.14. The mean scores of job stress of nurses showed higher than average in all four dimensions: 2.89±8.5 in the nursing activity dimension, 3.45±7.6 in the job environmental dimension, 3.02±7.5 in the interpersonal relations dimension, and 3.31±4.3 in the hospital administration & unit management dimension. This study showed that the staff nurses must be trained with job stress management programs for each nursing organization's effectiveness. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:227∼236)
The Effects of Motivational Program on Alcohol Expectancy, Abstinence Self-Efficacy, and Problematic Drinking in College Students
Hye-Il Lee, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):237-245.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effects the Motivation Intervention Program on alcohol expectancy, abstinence self-efficacy, and the problematic drinking college students. Alcohol Expectancy Scale, Abstinence Self-efficacy Scale, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and Drinking Problems Scale were administered to 511 college students. Among them, 14 students who fell on more than 8 points on the AUDIT diagnosis and would liked to participate in the present study were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, each consisting of 7 persons. The subjects were post-tested after the program and follow-up after 4 weeks later. The results were as follows: The treatment group indicated a significant difference in the alcohol expectancy, problematic drinking, and abstinence self-efficacy whereas the control group no difference. Finally, the results of this study was discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:237∼245)
The Relations of Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Deprivation to College Life Stress and Depression: Focused on Gender Differences
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):247-254.   Published online September 30, 2009
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This study was aim to examine the influence of circadian rhythm and sleep deprivation on stress and depression of college students according to gender. Three hundreds and nineteen participants were volunteered in this study. Of which, 147 were male and 172 were female, whose ages ranged from 18 to 37 (M=23.36, SD=2.98). The outcome measures were Circadian Rhythm Questionnaire, Sleep Deprivation Scale, Stress Coping Questionnaire for College Students, Zung's Self-Rating Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Male students were more likely to be evening type than female, and the evening type was more likely to experience sleep deprivation than the morning type. The morning type were more depressed than the evening type for males, while it was reversed for females. Although there were no differences in college life stress and depression by existence of sleep deprivation for males, female students who were experiencing sleep deprivation showed significant higher level of college life stress and depression than females who were not experiencing sleep deprivation. Consuming alcoholic beverages was positively related to being evening type for both male and female students, while playing internet games was positively related to being evening type only for males. The present findings suggest that possible gender differences may exist in relationships between sleep circadian rhythm and mental health of college students. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:247∼254)
The Influence of Laughter on Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Elderly
Young-Sun Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):255-263.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The elderly could feel a variety of stress, anxiety and depression as a result of sharp growth in the number of elderly and dramatic extension of life span. This study is to evaluate the effects of laughter program in elderly and to suggest that the practice is an effective nursing intervention to reduce the stress and anxiety, depression in the elderly. The research design was pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent control group. The forty-six subjects in G city participated in this study. The 46 research subjects were assigned to experimental (n=23) and control (n=23) groups. The laughter program was administered by one time for one day on the experimental group. In order to evaluate the effects of the laughter program, stress and anxiety, depression were measured before and after the treatment and used by visual analogue scale. There was significant increment in the level of stress, anxiety, depression at the experimental group. The results proved that laughter program was an effective nursing intervention to get rid of stress, to relieve anxiety and depression. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:255∼263)
Mediating Effects of Worry, Rumination, Acceptance, and Coping Style in the Links Among Life Stress, Temperaments, and Negative Affect
Kyenghee Lee*, Hoon-Jin Lee*, Sheila R. Woody&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):265-276.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The mediating effects of worry, rumination, psychological acceptance, and coping styles in the relationships among life stress, temperaments, and negative affect (depression and anxiety) were investigated using structural equation modeling. The measures of psychological avoidance (worry, rumination, and avoidance coping), psychological flexibility (psychological acceptance and problem-solving coping), the Life Experience Survey, the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the STAI, and the BDI were administered to 296 college students. As a result, extraversion was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between stressful life events or neuroticism and negative affect. The psychological avoidance (worry, rumination, and avoidance coping) was shown to play a mediating role in the relationship between stressful life events or temperaments and negative affect. The psychological flexibility (psychological acceptance and problem-solving coping) was shown to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between psychological avoidance and negative affect. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings and the limitations of the present study are discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:265∼276)
Time Course of the Effects of Nitric Oxide on Voluntary Wheel Running Behavior following Restraint Stress
Hye-Min Kang, Jizi Jin, Chan Park
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):277-284.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in stress-induced motivational behavior change in mice was evaluated using voluntary wheel running in the cage. The effects of daily restraint stress on voluntary running were followed for two weeks. Daily restraint stress for 3 hours reduced voluntary running from Day 1 to Day 7. The effects of the NO precursor, L-arginine, and the NO synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on voluntary running were also observed for two weeks. In the L-NAME-treated group, voluntary running decreased on Days 1 to 3 compared to the baseline level (Day 0; voluntary running levels before stress). Treatment with L-arginine following restraint stress markedly sustained the voluntary running activity to basal level, whereas treatment with L-NAME following restraint stress prolonged the decrease in voluntary running induced by stress. These results suggest that NO may protect against stress-induced motivational behavioral change. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:277∼284)
Effects of Stresses and Potential Moderators on School Adjustments of Undergraduates from North Korea
Eunmi Park, Junseoung Park, Taeyun Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):285-293.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The study aimed to examine the moderating effect of optimism, social support, stress coping strategy in the relationship between school adjustment and stresses. A sample of 46 undergraduates from North Korean completed a questionnaire composed of measurement scales for school adjustment, college life stresses, acculturative stresses, optimism, social support and stress coping strategies - emotion-focused, active problem solving, and seeking help from others. Results indicated that school adjustment was explained largely by acculturation stresses and stress coping strategies. Also, it was found that stress coping strategies played a moderating role in the relationship between school adjustment and acculturation stresses. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to relevant theories and research, and their implications for cultural adjustment and limitations of the present study were suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:285∼293)
Structural Equation Model of Adolescent's Depression and Related Variables
Jeongyee Bae, Yoonjung Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):295-305.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to construct a structural equation model that would further explain the depression in Korean adolescents. Based on preceding researches, this study established a path model of depression and its related variables. One thousand nine hundreds ninety-six high school students participated in this study. Data was collected by visit-survey with an organized questionnaire and was analyzed by SPSS and AMOS programs. The result of study are as follows. Self-concept showed a significantly direct influence to depression while both family satisfaction and school adjustment directly and indirectly influenced depression. Parental acceptance, autonomy, school achievement and social support indirectly influenced depression. These results imply that first, family satisfaction and self-concept are essential to solve the problems of depression. Especially friend's support, school adjustment should help improve the self-concept and solve depression. Second, a variety of programs are available for schools to employ in an effort to provide interventions for students who demonstrate depression. Finally, it is necessary for family, school and all the society members to comprehensively cooperate to solve the problem of depression. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:295∼305)
Effect of Treadmill Running on c-Fos Expression in the Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray and Nucleus Raphe Magnus Regions of the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Mice
Il-Soo Lee*, Young-Je Sim&#;, Jee-Youn Kim&#;, Il-Gyu Ko&#;, Bo-Kyun Kim&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;, Choong-Yeol Lee*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):307-312.   Published online September 30, 2009
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The mammalian nervous system contains descending pain control system, such as periaqueductal gray (PAG) and nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). In chronic diabetic neuropathic pain, the activity of descending pain control system may be reduced, further amplifying pain perception. c-Fos protein is rapidly expressed in neurons in response to various stimuli, and c-Fos expression is recognized as a marker of increased neuronal activity. Upregulations of c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and NRM suggests the activation of descending pain control system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill running on the expression of c-Fos in the vlPAG and NRM regions of brains in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mice in the treadmill exercise group were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day for 30 consecutive days. In mice with STZ-induced diabetes, the expression of c-Fos in the vlPAG and NRM was suppressed. Treadmill running, as like as insulin treatment, significantly increased c-Fos expression in the vlPAG and NRM. These results suggest that treadmill running might activate neurons in the vlPAG and NRM, and thus it alleviate the diabetes-related neuropathic pain through activation of descending pain control system. (Korean J Str Res. 2009;17:307∼312)
Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Mouse C2C12 Myoblast Cells
Ji-Eun Koh*, Ye-Jin Kim&#;, Mi-Hyeon Jang&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;, Tae-Woon Kim&#;, Choong-Yeol Lee*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(3):313-321.   Published online September 30, 2009
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role as a mediator of skeletal muscle damage after strenuous exercise and during aging. In the present study, the protective effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in myoblast C2C12 cells was investigated. Through morphological and biochemical analysis, it was demonstrated that C2C12 cells treated with H2O2 exhibited several features of apoptosis. The apoptotic characteristic was decreased in cells treated with NAC prior to H2O2 exposure. In addition, it was shown that H2O2 increased the expression of bax but decreased the expression of bcl-2. Pre-treatment with NAC intervened H2O2-induced increase in the bax expression level and alleviated H2O2-induced suppression of bcl-2 expression. Our data show that NAC protects myoblast C2C12 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the regulation of the expression of bax and bcl-2. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:313∼321)

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