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Volume 8(2); December 2000
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Original Articles
Neurophysiological Review on Unpleasant Feelings Associated with Pain
Byung-Il Min, Young-Wuk Cho, Jong-Phill Chu*
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):1-8.   Published online December 30, 2000
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It is commonly accepted that discomfort sensation(pain) is associated with unpleasant feeling anxiety, fear and helpessness. However, it is not clear why such sensations occur when we feel pain. With the analysis available to us reharding the pain pathway, limbic system, and their realtionship, we have surmised the underlying mechanism for pain is always associated with unplesant feelings. On entering the spinal cord, the pain signals take two pathways to the brain, through the neospinothalamic tract for fast-sharp pain and through the paleospinothalamic tract for a slow-chronic pain. The pain signals excite second-order neuron of the spinothalamic tract. These give rise to long fibers that cross immediately to the opposite side of the cord through the anterior commissure and then pass upward to the brain in the anterolateral column. The most acute painfibers pass all the way to thalamus, terminating in the ventrobasal complex along with the dorsal-medial lemniscal tract for tactile sensation. From these areas, the signals are tranmitted to other basal area of the brain and to the somatic sensory cortex. The majority of slow pain fibers terminate widely in the brain stem, principally in one of the three areas : (1) the reticular nuclei of the brain stem ; (2) the fectal area of the meoencephalon; or (3) the periaquaductal gray region. From the brain stem pain area, multiple short-fiber neurons relay the pain signal upward into the intralaminar and cental nuclei of the thalamus, and into certain portions of the hypothalamus and other adjacent regions of the basal brain. It is already clear that several limbic structures are particularly concerned with the affective nature of sensory sensations - that is, whether the sensations are pleasant or unpleasant. These affective qualities are also called reward of punishment. Electrical stimulation of the certain limbic areas please of satisfies the animal, whereas electrical stimulation of other regions causes terror, pain, fear, defence, escape reaction, and all the other elements of punishment. By using this procedure, the reward centers have been found to be located in the ventromedial nucleus, septum, amygdala, certain areas of the thalamus and extending downward into the basal tegmentum of the meoencephalon. Many afferent connections to the reward and punishment centers of the limbic system from the areas of main pain pathways have been reviewed. Brain stem reticular afferents ascend to the hypothalamus via mammillary peduncle and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus. The mammillary peduncle arises from the dorsal and vental nuclei of the midbrain and projects mainly to the latreral mammillary nucleus. The ascending component of the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus is formed from cells in the central gray of the midbrain. Fibers in this bundle spread out over caudal and dorsal regions of the hypothalamus where they become part of the periventricular system. Brain stem afferents to the hypothalamus also arise from neurons in the raphe nuclei of the midbrain, the lateral parabrachial nuclei and from the locus ceruleus. From the review in this study, it can be concluded that unpleasant feelings may be evoked by activation of the punishment centers of the limbic system which receive many afferent pain fibers from the brain stem.
A Study for Antistress and Arousal Effects and the Difference of Its Effectiveness among Three Aromatic Synergic Blending Oils
Hong Keun Oh, Jin Young Choi*, Kyum Ku Chun**, Jun Suk Lee***, Dong Ki Park***, Sung Don Choi****, Tal Il Chun****
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):9-24.   Published online December 30, 2000
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Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the antistress and arousal effects of three aromatic blends being composed of synergic oils and also to differentiate its effectiveness among three. Methods: The subject were 20 (10 for men, 10 for women). they were devided into 4 groups which were group for non aroma inhalation, aroma blend I, aroma blend II, and aroma blend III. Vital factors(blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate), electroencephalograpy, psychological tests(SACL, STAI) were applied. Results : 1. All three aromatic synergic blends revealed significantly stable conditions by lowering pulse and respiratory rates after inhalation. Aroma III was most effective in its function. There were no statistically difference among three in blood pressure. 2. Aroma III and II were significantly valuable in antianxiety effect and aroma I and III were appeared most antistress effect statistically. Aroma III displayed almost same level in alertness after inhalation. The most effective, antistress, antianxiety and arousal states were exhibited in aroma III. 3. The best stable and concentrated brain waves were seen in aroma III inhalation. Aroma II and aroma I disclosed rather relaxed picture than arousal on the encephalograpy. Conclusion : All three aromatic synergic blends reached effective antistress and antianxiety states after inhalation of each blends. But the most effective antistress and arousal states were certainly achieved in the inhalation of aroma III. Further studies about the effectiveness between the amount of aromatic essential oils and the duration of inhalation should be considered. Also clincial tests of these three aromatic synergic blending oils to the group of students preparing examination, drivers and attention deficit children should be accomplished in the future.
Effect of Oriental & Western Anti-Stress Agents on the Changes of the Salivary Gland of Rats under Restraint Stress
Jung-Pyo Hong, Yang-Hyun Chun
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):25-38.   Published online December 30, 2000
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The Effect of Depression and Emotional Situation on Attributional Style and Mood
Han Gee Seong, Hyo Hyang Ku*
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):39-46.   Published online December 30, 2000
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This study investigated cognitive and emotional features of college students who have symptoms of minor depression and whether these features are restricted to the depressed subjects themselves or extended to the perception of other people. After dividing depressed group and nondepressed group on a basis of the BDI score, subjects experienced pleasant or sad emotional situation induced by several songs and a movie. Then subjects responded to the questionnaire measuring depressongenic style and emotional state of the subject one self, a close friend, and a strange student respectively. The results are as follows: First, depressed subjects had stronger depressogenic attributional style than nondepressed subjects. Second, depressed sunjects perceived their attributional style was more depressogenic than a close friend's and a strange stedent's. But nondepressed subjects didn't show any difference among attributional style of their own, perceived attributional style of a close friend and a strange student. Third, depressed subjects felt less pleasure in the pleasant situation and less in the sad situation than nondepressed subjects
Moderating Effects of Communication of the Relationship Between Job Stressors and Burnout and Job Satisfacton in Male and Female Teachers
Eun-Hee Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):47-62.   Published online December 30, 2000
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the present study examined the moderating effects of communication of the relationship between job stressors, burnout and job satisfaction differently depending upon gender. A questionnaire was administered to 187 teachers(119 male and 68 female). The Results showed that job-related communications of co-worker negatively moderated the relationship between job conflict and burnout in male teachers. Similarly job-related communications of co-workers nefatively moerated the relationship between job overload and job satisfaction in male teachers. Non-job related communications of co-workers negatively moderated the relationship between job ambiguity and job satisfaction in female teachers. From these findings, we revealed the differential effects of communications according to gender on the relationship between job stressors, burnout and job satisfaction. Implications and limitations of the results and suddestions for future study were discussed.
A Longitudinal Study on the Degree of Demoralization and the Constraining Factors of Victims from the Kwangju Civil Uprising
Ju Na Byun
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):63-74.   Published online December 30, 2000
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For the purposes of figuring out the degree of demoralization (life unsatisfaction and uphappiness) of the injured victims at the time of the bloody 5.18 Civil Uprising in Kwangju, Korea, 1980 and the subsequent 17 years; analyzing constraining factors. This study surveyed 156 members of the 5.18 Injured Victims Association for 6 months from July through December of 1997. This study employs the Cantril Life Satisfaction Ladder(Cantril 1965) and the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (MUNSH, Kozma and Stones 1980) as the internationally standardized apparatuses for measuring happiness. For the questions on life satisfaction, 97% of the subjects answered not satisfied, 45.1% of whom answered very unsatistied. The mean score of life satisfaction is 2.94. The life satisfaction scores at each point of time change as follows: Right before the 5.18 Uprising, the life satisfaction score is 5.66, but right after the Uprising, it goes 4 ladders down to the lowest point. Right after the 1990 Compensation, the score goes 1 ladder up to 2.94. Right after the enacment of the 5.18 Special Law, it goes up 1 more ladder to 3.58, but at the present time of 1997, it goes down 1 ladder again to 2.94. As for the future of 2002, the score 4.45,1.5 times more satisfied than now, but this score is still lower than that of before the Uprising. The score of unhappiness is greater if they have fewer available clinics; if the degree of disability is higher; and if the scores of life satixfaction are lower.Illness also has significant influences on the scores of unhappiness. The unhappiness scores are also significantly varied according to the employment status. The illness and employment factors explain as much as 78.7% of their unhappiness.
Effects of Dhanjeon Respiration on Fatigue and Relaxtion among Clinical Nurses
Sung-Hee Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):75-82.   Published online December 30, 2000
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of DJR on fatigue and relaxation among nurses working at a general hospital. The study design employed the one-group protest-posttest quasi-experimental mehtod consisting of physical relaxating. DJR intervention, and a cooling-down phase. A conventience sample of 24 nurses was used in this study. The subjects were not currently taking any medication, nor participating in any program for relieving fatigue or achieving relaxation and participating in any program for relieving fatigue of achieving relaxtion and participated in the DJR training for 60minutes daily 5days a week over 4 weeks. The degrees of fagigue and relaxation were obtained by self-reported questionnaires. A repeated measures ANOVA was used in analyzing the data. The results were as follows: the mean scores for physical, mental, and neuro-sensational fatigue decreased significantly after 2 week and 4 week with DJR training compared with scores before the DJR training(F=13.79, P=.0001; F=24.28, P=.0001;F=17.03, P=.0001, respectively). The mean scores for physical and phychological relasation increased after 2 weeks and 4 weeks with DJR training compared with scores before the DJR training(F=29.02, P=.0001; F=20.38, P=.0001, respectively.) The above findings indicate that Dahnjeon Respiration is effective in reducing fatigue and achieving relaxation. DJR is therefore suggested as one intervention in managing fatigue and improving the general health of clinical nurses.
A Study on the Relationship Between Ego-states and Self-esteem of High School Students
Gil-Za Lee, Jeong-Sim Jung*
Korean J Str Res. 2000;8(2):83-94.   Published online December 30, 2000
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the co-relationship between Ego-state and Self-esteem of high school students. The subjects were 868 high school students in M city. It was done from October 24 to December 14, 1999 by using Ego-gram checklist and Self-esteem scale. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS/PC+(mean, standard deviation, %, two-way ANOVA, Peason's correlation coeffcient). The results were summarized as follows: 1. There were differneces between the male and the female high school students in Ego-states and Self-esteem correlations (About CP, AC Ego-states factors & self-esteem, the male high school students were higher than the female ones.). There were diffenrences among thi First · the Second · the Third graders high school in Ego-states and Self-esteem correlations(In NP Ego-states factor, the Second graders were higher than the others. In AC Ego-states factor, the Third grader were higher than the others. In FC Ego-states factor, the First grader were higher than the others.). The typer of Ego-states profile was a gentle slope of M type and there were differences according to sex and grade in high school students. 2. The Superiority factor of Ego-gram were ordered FC type. NP type, AC type, A type, CP type. Superiority A type was the highest of Self-esteem mean scores. and Superiority AC type was the lowest of Self-esteem mean scores. 3. There were significant correlations between Ego-states and Self-esteem of high school students. The relations between Self-esteem and A, NP, FC, CP Ego-states factor respectively were a positive correlation. But the ralation between Self-esteem and ACE Ego-states factor was a negative correlation.

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