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Volume 27(4); December 2019
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Review Articles
An Analysis of Research on Parenting Stress of Unmarried Mothers in Korea
Kyung-Sook Bang, Sungjae Kim, Yeseul Jeong, Min Kyung Song, Gumhee Lee, Jihee Lim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):287-297.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.287
  • 212 View
  • 7 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to analyze current research trends on parenting stress of unmarried mothers in Korea and explore the related concepts.

Methods:

For searching the literature, KMbase, Korea Med, RISS, NDSL was used. Fourteen studies from 2009 to 2019 were selected, and National Institute of Health (NIH) Study Quality Assessment Tool (SQAT) was applied.

Results:

Among the 14 studies, most frequently used study design was correlational study (64.3%), and majority of the study (78.6%) was conducted in the field of social welfare. Only one study was found in the nursing journal. Related concepts can be categorized as individual (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) factors, and social/environmental factors. Among these, self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, and health perception in cognitive concept domain, depression in emotional concept domain, parenting behavior in behavioral domain, and lastly, social and interpersonal support were studied as related factors with parenting stress. Overall parenting stress level was higher than moderate, and it was positively related to depression, and negatively related to health perception and social support. Various study tools were used even the original foreign tool was the same, thereby comparisons among studies were difficult.

Conclusions:

Future studies are suggested to explore unmarried mother’s physical health problems as well as emotional problems, and to develop reliable measurement tools which can be used in Korean situation. Also, various nursing intervention programs for health promotion and child rearing competence for unmarried mothers should be developed.

Smoking-Cessation Interventions for Hospitalized Patients with Mental Disorder: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
Jun Hyung Lee, Eon Sook Lee
STRESS. 2019;27(4):298-303.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.298
  • 143 View
  • 3 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

Hospitalization is a unique opportunity for smoking cessation, but there is little evidence for hospitalized people with mental disorder. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation that are initiated during hospital stay for the patients with mental disorder.

Methods:

We undertook a meta-analysis to estimate summary effects on smoking cessation intervention during hospitalization with randomized controlled trials for people with mental disorders. Electronic data was searched in May 2019 for randomized controlled trial using term including (hospital and patient*) or hospitali* or inpatient* or admission* or admitted and Intervention of smoking cessation and (psychia* OR mental*). Two authors extracted data independently for each paper, with disagreement resolved by 3rd researcher. Fixed effects model was used for pooling estimate for smoking cessation after 6months because of homogeneity for the extracted studies.

Results:

Three studies with 687 for intervention group and 584 for control group were extracted. Intensive intervention that began during the hospitalization and continued after discharge increased smoking cessation rate after 6months (risk ratio (RR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06∼1.87).

Conclusions:

Intensive intervention that began during a hospital stay and post discharge therapy promote smoking cessation among the patients with mental disorders.

Original Articles
The Effects of Pathological Narcissism on Social Anxiety: Mediation Effects of Difference of Self-Presentational Motivation and Self-Presentational Expectation and Anger Rumination
Yong Hee Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):304-312.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.304
  • 148 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pathological narcissism on social anxiety, and the dual mediating effects of difference of self-presentation motivation and self-presentation expectancies and anger rumination.

Methods:

A total of 307 college students participated in this study by completing the questionnaires and to solve the research questions, AMOS and bootstrapping analysis was employed.

Results:

First, pathological narcissism had a significant interrelation to self-presentation motivation, self-presentation expectancies, anger rumination, and social anxiety. Second, it was confirmed that pathological narcissism affected social anxiety by mediating both difference of self-presentation motivation and self-presentation expectancies and anger rumination. Third, the dual mediating effects of difference of self-presentation motivation and self-presentation expectancies and anger rumination on the relationship between pathological narcissism and social anxiety was found.

Conclusions:

Implication for empirical research and clinical practice regarding treatment of clients with pathological narcissism and social anxiety are discussed. Limitation of current research and suggestions for future study are discussed.

Association between Physical Activity and Perceived Stress among Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Using 2017 the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data
Jaeheon Heo
STRESS. 2019;27(4):313-319.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.313
  • 192 View
  • 6 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the high perceived stress of adults and the types and amounts of their physical activities.

Methods:

The subjects consisted of 5,624 adults aged 20 and older from the 2017 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The three types of physical activity (aerobic activity, muscular exercise and walking) were investigated and the amounts of physical activity were calculated with time used in each activity were calculated. To examine the association between the high perceived stress and physical activity, complex samples multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with controlling participants’ demographic and socio-economic, health status and health behavior characteristics.

Results:

There were 1,539 people (27.36%) in the high stress perceived group, and the subjects in the high stress perceived group seemed to perform less time to walking (weighted mean: 217.23 minutes/ week) than the low or not stress perceived group (weighted mean: 241.09 minutes/week). The proportion of subjects doing muscular exercise 3 or more days in a week seemed to higher in the lower stress perceived group than the high stress perceived group. The multiple logistic regression analyses results showed significant correlations between walking or doing muscular exercise and high-perceived stress (p<0.01). Additionally, the proportion of activity at work seemed to be a significant factor in the perceived stress level.

Conclusions:

There appears to be a correlation between physical activity especially muscular activity and perceived stress, such that further studies will lead to improvements in stress management strategies.

Factors Influencing Self-Care Behaviors of Renal Dialysis Patients
Yoonjung Kim, Sanggeon Park
STRESS. 2019;27(4):320-327.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.320
  • 180 View
  • 10 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-care behaviors in renal dialysis patients and to provide the basic data for management of self-care behaviors.

Methods:

This study was conducted from December 1, 2015 to January 30, 2016 in 120 patients with chronic renal failure receiving dialysis treatment for 6 months or longer at a medical institution in B city. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 21.0 program.

Results:

The self-care behaviors of the renal dialysis patients showed a statistically significant positive correlation with autonomous motivation (r=.33, p<.001), health provider’s support (r=.34, p<.001), and family support (r=.40, p<.001), a negative correlation with depression (r=-.31, p=.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed to examine the factors affecting self-care behaviors in renal dialysis patients. Family support, depression and autonomous motivation were significant predictors of self-care behaviors in renal dialysis patients, and these variables accounted for 23.5% of self-care behaviors.

Conclusions:

This study was to find out the relationship between self-care behaviors related variables in renal dialysis patients and to provide basic data for management, maintenance, and promotion of self-care behaviors. Family support, depression and autonomous motivation of renal dialysis patients were most important variables related to self-care behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a plan that can intervene in depression in renal dialysis patients early and effectively to improve family support and subject’s autonomous motivation.

Qualitative Exploration of Trauma Experience and Posttraumatic Support of Community Mental Health Professionals
Su-Young Kim, Hee-Jung Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):328-336.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.328
  • 145 View
  • 4 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The study purpose was to describe experience of violence and trauma, needs for support of community mental health professionals (CMHP).

Methods:

This study had a qualitative descriptive design and qualitative content analysis was used. For data collection, focus group interviews were carried out with 18 CMHP in 3 groups.

Results:

Data analysis has been extracted in to 5 domains (safety, stress, coping, support, protection), 9 categories (primary trauma, secondary trauma, negative emotion, burnout, workload, ineffective response, trust and understanding, foundation for protection and empowerment) and 14 subcategories.

Conclusions:

From the findings, we could know it more clearly that the community mental health field is relatively high in the risk of violence, suicide case and death of the subjects. However, the pre- post-response measures for the protection of CMHP who has been violently traumatized were very insufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare psychological emotional support system along with preventive and post-response measures for safety at the individual and institutional level. At the same time, it is important to create a supportive environment at the peer and organizational level. As a results we proposed that rapid preparation of the materialization of emotional support system for CMHP, mandatory application of two-person-one intervention principle, preparation of guidelines for emergency response, improvement of physical environment for safety, improvement of understanding on mental health work of institutional officials and also supervision ability of mental health senior staffs, strengthening education and supervision system for enhancement CMHP’s capacity are necessary.

The Mediating Effect of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategy on the Relationship between Emotion Malleability Beliefs and Depression, Anxiety in Individual with Generalized Anxiety Tendency
Hyeong Taek Kim, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2019;27(4):337-343.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.337
  • 134 View
  • 3 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive emotion regulation strategy on the relationship between emotion malleability beliefs and depression, and between emotion malleability beliefs and anxiety in Individuals with GAD (Generalized anxiety disorder) symptoms.

Methods:

The 103 individuals with GAD symptoms respond to the questionnaires measuring emotion malleability beliefs, cognitive emotion regulation strategy, depression, anxiety.

Results:

Data from this study show that maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy mediates the effect of emotion malleability beliefs on depression and anxiety. Adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy has no mediating effect on them.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that making the individuals with GAD have emotion malleability beliefs or educating them on emotion regulation strategy may not be enough. Therefore, practical intervention is needed in the overall emotion regulation. Finally, this paper includes implications, limitations, and suggestions for the future study.

Influence of Job Stress, Sleep Quality and Fatigue on Work Engagement in Shift Nurses
Ji Yeon Shim, Nam Sook Seo, Mi Ae Kim, Jeung Suk Park
STRESS. 2019;27(4):344-352.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.344
  • 223 View
  • 10 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study was conducted to examine job stress, sleep quality, and fatigue and identify major variables that influence work engagement in order to develop an intervention program for shift duty nurses to enhance their work engagement.

Methods:

The subjects of this study were 170 nurses working with shift duty at one university hospital and one general hospital located in G city. Data were collected from February to March 2018 with structured questionnaires, and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe’s test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression.

Results:

The mean scores of job stress, sleep quality, fatigue, and work engagement were 3.87, 1.57, 4.64, and 2.36, respectively. The work engagement was negatively correlated with job stress, sleep quality, and fatigue. The most powerful variable influencing work engagement was sleep quality and the model showed explanatory power of 22.5%.

Conclusions:

The results of this study indicate that the quality of sleep is most important factor affecting work engagement of shift nurses. This study suggest that it is necessary a variety of strategies in order to improve the quality of sleep and to intervene in job stress and fatigue, eventually lead to enhancing nursing performance.

Development and Effects of a Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation Program to Improve Maternal-Fetal Attachment
Min-Jeong Kim, Wan-Suk Gim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):353-364.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.353
  • 166 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The psychological health of a pregnant woman and a healthy fetal relationship are important for perinatal adaptation. This study aimed to develop loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKCM), which are known to be effective for improving interpersonal relationships and to verify its effectiveness in order to promote maternal-fetal attachment (MFA).

Methods:

We developed an LKCM curriculum and training program for pregnant women and assessed its efficacy for improving MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and positive fetal movement experience (PFME) through a pre-intervention, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up comparison with a yoga comparison group and an untreated control group.

Results:

The LKCM experimental group showed significantly improved MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and PFME than did the other groups at post-intervention and follow-up.

Conclusions:

Overall, this study confirmed that LKCM interventions can promote MFA, positive emotions, mindfulness, and PFME. Thus, it is meaningful that this study served to foster beneficial psychological resources compared to numerous studies aiming to improve deficits experienced by pregnant women. Additionally, this is the first full-scale study to develop a program based on specialized LKCM to enhance MFA during pregnancy and verify its efficacy.

The Influence of Stress and Role Conflict on Quality of Life among Graduate Students in Nursing
Yu-Jin Jeong, Eun Kyung Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):365-373.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.365
  • 113 View
  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between stress, role conflict and quality of life among graduate students in nursing.

Methods:

A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. After IRB approval, the data were collected using structured questionnaires from the 98 graduate students in nursing. The data were collected from September 10 to November 30, 2018. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression by using SPSS 25.0 statistical program.

Results:

Nursing graduate students were experiencing more stress on their facing task than the interpersonal dimension of stress, and had the greatest difficulty in playing the role of their families due to their work and school responsibilities. Stress and role conflict of nursing graduate students were negatively correlated with quality of life. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and role conflict. The variables affecting the quality of life of nursing graduate students were identified by stress and working status.

Conclusions:

To improve the quality of life for nursing graduate students, it is necessary to help balance the roles between work, school, and family through appropriate stress management.

The Effects of Non-Commissioned Officers’ Role Stress on Burnout: The Mediating Effects of Achievement Goal
Hyun-Ah Kim, Jayoung Lee
STRESS. 2019;27(4):374-379.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.374
  • 132 View
  • 1 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of achievement goals (performance approach goal, mastery approach goal, performance avoidance goal) on the link between role stress and burnout and engagement.

Methods:

A total 224 non-commissioned officers agreed to the purpose of this study were participated. A correlation analysis was performed by using SPSS 21.0, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was performed by using AMOS 20.0.

Results:

This study were as follows. As a result of comparing the research model including the performance approach goal and the competition model except the performance approach goal, the competition model was excellent. In addition, performance avoidance goal was partially mediated in the relationship between role stress and burnout. In addition, the mastery approach goal was partially in the relationship between role stress and engagement.

Conclusions:

The results imply that improving mastery approach goal and decreasing performance avoidance goal is very important for non-commissioned officers. Therefore, the military authorities should develop various strategies to decrease performance avoidance goal and improve the mastery approach goal.

A Study of Factor Structure of the Korean Version of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale
Sojin Yun, Jaeeun Shin, Taehun Lee
STRESS. 2019;27(4):380-388.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.380
  • 208 View
  • 8 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Korean version of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The TAS-20 (source of the TAS-20K) has been supported the three-factor correlated model. However, some factor structure studies of the TAS-20 rejected the three-factor correlated model and adopted alternative models.

Methods:

In study 1, we conducted a comparison study of the alternative measurement models by using CFA. In study 2, we examined scale reliability and gender measurement invariance of the factor structure. To examine the alternative models and scale reliability, we using the bifactor model reliability indices.

Results:

As a result, the DIF and DDF factors have a close relationship but the EOT factor has some differences with DIF and DDF. So we adopted a two-factor correlated model with group factor. And the adopted factor structure has partial measurement invariance. Therefore we can compare gender differences of the TAS-20K.

Conclusions:

This study has significance that examining TAS-20K’s factor structure and examining measurement invariance in gender.

Development of Addiction Prevention Care Program for Nurses
Sungjae Kim, Se-Jin Joo, Young Ok Song, Jin-Gyung Cha, Jeongwoon Yang
STRESS. 2019;27(4):389-395.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.389
  • 126 View
  • 7 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to develop an addiction preventing program for nurses, which will improve nurses’ general competency of preventing the addiction problem.

Methods:

The develop process is in 3 steps. First, We analyzed the studies. A group of addiction experts did the focus group interview and drew out the core competency that is necessary to the general nurses. At the second step of the process, we developed 8 modules of addiction preventing program. For the last step, we calculated the content validity index (CVI) from the expert, and the average of CVI was 0.9.

Results:

Each module’s topic is; Overall understanding of addiction, Type and characteristic of addiction, Addiction preventing program with SBIRT (Alcoholism, Addiction of internet-game and smartphone, Gambling addiction, Substance addiction), and the Addiction management for internet-game and smartphone addicted adolescent, and employee’s alcoholism).

Conclusions:

This study provides the basic educational information of the four major addiction prevention. Since nurses are the first line medical staff who is responsible for the screening, it is very important to provide and educate nurse.

Negative Urgency Mediates the Relation between Negative Emotion and Smartphone Addiction
Ae Kyoung Lee, Hyejeen Lee
STRESS. 2019;27(4):396-403.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.396
  • 182 View
  • 2 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

Negative urgency is a tendency to engage in rash behaviors when experiencing negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, and stress, and is known to predict addictive behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of negative urgency on smartphone addiction as one of behavioral addictions.

Methods:

Self-report questionnaires were administered to 350 college (graduate) students to assess the level of depression, anxiety, stress, negative urgency, and smartphone addiction.

Results:

Regression and bootstrapping analyses showed that negative urgency partially mediated the relationships between each of depression, anxiety, and stress and smartphone addiction, even after controlling for age, sex, and average time spent on smartphone per day.

Conclusions:

Negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, or stress affect smartphone addiction through negative urgency. This finding suggests that intervention for smartphone addiction should focus not only on negative emotions but also on reducing negative urgency. Further implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

The Influence of the Emotional Labor, Professional Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy & Social Support of Emergency Room Nurse’s Burnout
Miro Kim, Eunju Seo, Sung Hee Shin
STRESS. 2019;27(4):404-411.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.4.404
  • 258 View
  • 23 Download
  • 6 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of emotional labor, professional self-concept, self-efficiency and social support on burnout of emergency room nurses by verifying the level of burnout of them. Through this, we will reduce the turnover and secure professional manpower and they will provide basic data on efficient manpower management.

Methods:

The subjects of this study were 130 emergency room nurses of eight hospitals in Seoul. The collected datas were analyzed by the SPSS Version 24.0 program using the percentage, mean and standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis.

Results:

The level of emotional labor of emergency room nurses was higher than that of other nurses. Professional self-concept, self-efficiency and social support have a negative correlation with burnout and there is a positive correlation between professional self-concept, self-efficiency and social support. The major factors influencing burnout were professional self-concept, which was a significant negative influence factor, emotional labor was a significant positive influence and self-efficiency showed a significant negative influence factor.

Conclusions:

To reduce the burnout of emergency room nurses, an emotional management program, positive self-concept formation for emergency room nurses are needed. In addition, it is necessary to develop and apply a variety of intervention programs to build policy for long- term working nurse and social support systems.


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