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Volume 27(1); March 2019
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Original Articles
Heterogeneous Trajectories of Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Diabetes: Findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA)
Chanhee Kim, Min Jung Kim, Chang Gi Park
STRESS. 2019;27(1):1-8.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.1
  • 171 View
  • 11 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF

본 연구는 지역사회 거주 당뇨노인의 인지기능의 변화궤적 양상을 확인하고자 하였다. 한국복지패널 1차년도부터 6차년도 자료를 활용하여, 당뇨진단을 받은 65세 이상의 노인 672명의 자료를 분석하였 다. 성장혼합모형 분석 결과, 당뇨노인의 인지기능의 변화양상은 ‘정상-유지형’ (41.5%), ‘정상-저하형’ (23.8%), ‘경도인지장애-유지형’ (17.1%), ‘경도인지장애-저하형’ (11.2%), ‘중증인지장애-저하형’ (6.4%) 의 5가지 유형으로 확인되었고, 연령, 성별, 가계소득, 자기보고 건강상태가 영향 요인으로 확인되었다. 본 연구 결과를 통해 당뇨노인의 인지기능의 변화 양상은 이질적이며, 당뇨노인의 인지기능 저하를 예방 하기 위해 대상자에 대한 개별적인 이해와 맞춤형 중재가 필요함을 확인할 수 있었다.

Divergent Associations of the Job Stress, the Job Satisfaction and Burnout Subtypes
Sunkyung Kim, Dohyun Ahn
STRESS. 2019;27(1):9-16.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.9
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  • 3 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

Burnout is known to be a multidimensional concept consisting of three sub-types, but it is not well known how each sub-type is associated with job stress and job satisfaction.

Methods:

This study conducted a survey with Nurses (N=192) in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, and analyzed how three subtypes of burnout (measured by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)) were associated with job stress and job satisfaction.

Results:

The results suggested that job stress affected, among the subtypes of exhaustion, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization burnout, but did not affect achievement reduction burnout. On the other hand, job satisfaction had significant effects on achievement reduction burnout, but it did not affect emotional exhaustion and depersonalization burnout.

Conclusions:

Among the subtypes of burnout, emotion exhaustion and depersonalization may have different psychological processes from reduced achievement.

The Comparison Study of Nurses’Exhaustion and Depression, Anxiety, ADHD, and Impulsivity
Youn Sil Kim, Namhee Kim, Ji Hee Wee, Beck Hee Chang, Jung Ae Park, Myung Ho Lim
STRESS. 2019;27(1):17-22.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.17
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  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Objective:

This study aimed to evaluate the comparison of exhaustion, ADHD, self-esteem, impulsivity, suicidal tendencies and quality of life as well as depression and anxiety in nurses group and comparison group in Korea.

Methods:

A set of questionnaires was provided to a total of 97 nurses and 310 other participants as a comparison group. All subjects were evaluated using the Beck’s Depression Inventory, Beck’s Anxiety Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Korean Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Scales, Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Inventory, Baratt’ Impulsivity Scale, Beck’s Scale of Suicide Ideation, and Quality of Life Scale.

Results:

The results of this study indicated that the nurses were more likely to show depression, anxiety, exhaustion, impulsivity, and quality of life. In the multiple regression analysis, nurses group was the most correlated factor in exhaustion. In addition, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, ADHD, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were also correlated to exhaustion.

Conclusions:

Timely and effective evaluation and treatment of impulsivity, as well as depression and anxiety were required for nurses.

The Effect of Feedback Manipulation on Perceived Others’Expectations, Social Ability, and Anticipatory Anxiety in Socially Anxious Individuals
Songyi Lee, Eunjung Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(1):23-35.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.23
  • 128 View
  • 3 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study examined the effect of feedback manipulation on anticipatory anxiety, perceived others’ expectations, and social ability insocially anxious individuals.

Methods:

One hundred individuals with high social anxiety and one hundred individuals with low social anxiety screened by Social Phobia Scale (SPS) were randomly assigned to four feedback conditions (i.e., the positive feedback condition, the non-negative feedback condition, the negative feedback condition, and the non-positive feedback condition).

Results:

In the two positive feedback conditions (i.e., the positive feedback condition and the non-negative feedback condition), following feedback manipulation, participants experienced increased perceived others’ expectations, increased perceived social ability, and reduced anticipatory anxiety regardless of participants groups. In the two negative feedback conditions (i.e., the negative feedback condition and the non-positive feedback condition), following feedback manipulation, participants experienced reduced perceived others’ expectations, unvarying anticipatory anxiety, and unvarying social ability. Individuals with high social anxiety rated feedback acception in the two negative feedback conditions higher than in the two positive feedback conditions.

Conclusions:

The clinical implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.

The Relationship between the Decentering and Forgiveness: The Moderating Effect of Reflective Response Style and the Mediating Effect of Anger Rumination
Jiwon Shin, Youngho Lee
STRESS. 2019;27(1):36-45.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.36
  • 150 View
  • 4 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of anger rumination between decentering and forgiveness, and the moderating effect of reflective response style.

Methods:

The subjects of this study were 231 college students who were assessed by the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ), the Response to Depressed mood Questionnaire (RDQ), the Korean Anger Rumination Scale (K-ARS), and the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI).

Results:

First, anger rumination partially mediated the relationship between decentering and forgiveness, and subfactors of anger rumination showed distinct mediating effect on the relationship between decentering and forgiveness. Rumination of cause did not have any mediating effect on the relationship between the decentering and forgiveness. But rumination of revenge showed a full mediating effect. Anger memories rumination showed partial mediating effect. Second, the total score of reflective response style had moderating effect on the relation between decentering and anger rumination. Objective reflection, which was a subfactor of reflective response style also showed moderating effect, but the feature of effect was different.

Conclusions:

These results suggested the importance of decentering and objective reflection in order to increase forgiveness. The implication of this study and further suggestions for future studies were discussed.

A Comparative Study on the Job Stress, Burnout and Nursing Performance of Nurses in Comprehensive Nursing Care Service Wards and Nurses in General Wards
Youn Sil Kim, Jung Ae Park, Eun Koung Seo
STRESS. 2019;27(1):46-52.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.46
  • 220 View
  • 14 Download
  • 5 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare job stress, burnout and nursing performance between nurses who work in comprehensive nursing care service wards and general wards. In addition we identified a correlation among job stress, burnout and nursing performance.

Methods:

The participants were 80 nurses (comprehensive nursing care service ward: 40, general wards: 40) and the data were collected using structured questionnaires to assess job stress, burnout and nursing performance.

Results:

There was no significant difference in general characteristics between comprehensive nursing care service wards nurses and general ward nurses. Comprehensive nursing care service wards nurses were statistically significantly higher in job stress and burnout than general ward nurses. While there was no difference in nursing performance. There was a positive correlation between job stress and burnout in comprehensive nursing care service wards.

Conclusions:

In order to establish a comprehensive nursing care service system with high patient satisfaction, it is necessary to study strategies to solve job stress and burnout of nurses and to improve job satisfaction and nursing performance.

A Systematic Review of the Suicide Prevention Program for the Elderly
Taekyun Gwon, Heeseung Choi
STRESS. 2019;27(1):53-63.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.53
  • 149 View
  • 6 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study is a systematic review of literature to analyze the characteristics and effects of suicide prevention programs for the elderly.

Methods:

We systematically reviewed literature published from 2007 to 2018 in 8 domestic and foreign databases (KISS, NDSL, Koreamed, RISS, Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, CENTRAL). The main search terms were ‘elderly’, ‘suicide’, ‘intervention program’, and included 8 articles matching the selection criteria in the final analysis. The program was divided into activities, counseling, and community support programs.

Results:

Most of the programs effectively reduced suicidal ideation and depression by reducing suicide risk factors and improving protective factors.

Conclusions:

As a result of the analysis, it was found that it is necessary to develop a specialized program for the prevention of suicide in the elderly considering social, environmental, personal and community characteristics.

The Effect of Optimism Intervention and Implementation Intention on Depression, Optimism, Subjective Well-Being, Self-Efficacy in College Students
Kyung-Ae Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(1):64-73.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.64
  • 127 View
  • 3 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study examined the effect of optimism intervention consisting of writing and mental imagery about best possible self (BPS) and implementation intention on depression, optimism, subjective well-being, self-efficacy in college students.

Methods:

Sixty depressive college students were randomly assigned to BPS condition (n=21), BPS & implementation intention condition (n=20), and control condition (n=19). Depression, optimism, emotional well-being, cognitive well-being, self-efficacy were measured before and after each intervention. The pre-and post-survey data were analyzed through ANCOVA.

Results:

The results showed that compared to the control intervention, BPS intervention led to significantly larger decrease in depression and significantly larger increase in optimism, emotional well-being, cognitive well-being, and self-efficacy. Compared to the control intervention, BPS & implementation intention intervention led to significantly larger decrease in depression and significantly larger increase in optimism and emotional well-being.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that optimism intervention and implementation intention has therapeutic implication in depressed group. Finally, the clinical implications and limitation of the present study were discussed.

The Influence of Traumatic Experience and Post-Event Rumination on Social Anxiety: The Mediating Effects of Self-Compassion
Suyeon Lee, Kyung Park
STRESS. 2019;27(1):74-81.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.74
  • 169 View
  • 4 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study aims to analyze the effects of traumatic experience and post-event rumination which are known as occurrence and maintenance factors of social anxiety and verify the mediating effect of self-compassion to the relationship between traumatic experience and post-event rumination.

Methods:

This study targeted 421 university students as research tools. Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Speech Anxiety Scale (SAS), Traumatic Experience Scale, Post-event Rumination Questionnaire (PRQ) and Korean-version of the Self-Compassion Scale (K-SCS) were used. The study results are as follows.

Results:

The results showed that social anxiety was high and self-compassion was low when traumatic experience was more frequent and post-event rumination was more frequent. Self- Compassion showed mediating effect in traumatic experience, post-event rumination and social anxiety. It can be interpreted that self-compassion indirectly reduces social anxiety.

Conclusions:

While existing social anxiety-related studies have been mostly focused on negative cognition, this study explored self-compassion as a positive variable to reduce social anxiety. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of self-compassion promotion, traumatic experience and post-event rumination in therapeutic intervention for people who experience social anxiety. Including this, the study has discussed its limitations and made suggestions.

Effects of Changing Items in Intelligence Test on Distribution of Norm Group and Computation of Standardized Score: Focused on Digit Symbol in K-WAIS and Coding in K-WAIS-IV
Seung-Min Oh, Sung-Won Choi
STRESS. 2019;27(1):82-90.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.82
  • 128 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The present study examined whether any unconsidered variable during revision of the K-WAIS would lower reliability of its standardized score.

Methods:

In this study, a group of participants were assigned to perform modified ‘coding’ tests, respectively. To avoid the norm group issue, all the conditions except the stimuli were set identical across the tests. Analysis focused on finding variables which would contribute to difference among the tests, including their distribution patterns.

Results:

The results showed that physical differences of spatial organization across the tests and background such as figure shapes attributed to significant difference between ‘digit symbol’ in K-WAIS and ‘coding’ in K-WAIS-IV.

Conclusions:

It suggests possibility of different difficulty level between ‘digit symbol’ in K-WAIS and ‘coding’ in K-WAIS-IV. Analysis of performance distribution also indicates that the test with better performance (K-WAIS coding) may have lower difficulty because its score distribution was more negatively skewed than that of the other.

Relationships between Psychological Characteristics of Golfing, Psychological Protective Factors, and Stresses of Amateur Golfers
Jin Hoon Choi, Kyung Hyun Suh
STRESS. 2019;27(1):91-97.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.91
  • 105 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

This study aims to explore the relations of psychological characteristics of golfing and psychological protective factors proven in previous studies to golf stresses of amateur golfers.

Methods:

The participants were 204 amateur golfers. Data were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression analysis using SPSS 23.0.

Results:

The results indicated that academic and intuitive approaches styles, golf-efficacy, and physical or social expectancy for golfing were positively correlated with golf stresses. Resilience and self-regulation were negatively correlated with golf stresses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that norm regulation accounted 35.5% variance of golf stresses, and confidence in golf, self-confidence, composure regulation, and cognitive approach to golf were also predictors.

Conclusions:

Since this study has been conducted on an exploratory basis, some results of this study must be reverified, and a number of studies are expected to conduct based on the results.

Development of the Emptiness Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder
Lila Choi, Sungwon Choi, Jinkyung Oh
STRESS. 2019;27(1):98-106.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.98
  • 131 View
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background:

Despite the popularity of the study of borderline personality disorder, definition of “Chronic Emptiness” were applied to define the theoretical concept and never met an agreement among evaluators.

Methods:

First, the preliminary questionnaire was prepared based on the previous studies and the data collected through the in-depth interviews with the people with borderline personality disorder, and the final 18 items were developed through the item analysis. In order to verify the reliability and validity of the emptiness scale, 526 adults from 18 to 40 years of age were tested for internal consistency coefficient, and factor analysis and validity test were conducted.

Results:

The internal consistency coefficient of the emptiness scale was very good. As a result of the factor analysis, it was confirmed that it has a single structure. On validity test, emptiness was highly correlated with borderline personality disorder, depression, and suicide ideation.

Conclusions:

Emptiness is associated with identity problems, and adolescents tend to do NSSI to deal with emptiness related to identity formation. Until now, the terms of loneliness, solitude, and emptiness have not been sufficiently distinguished, but the distinction between the respective terms has become possible through measuring emptiness. The implications and limitations of this research and subsequent studies discussed.

The Development and Validation of the Relational Need Scales
Soo-Hyun Kang, Jung-Ho Kim, Mirihae Kim
STRESS. 2019;27(1):107-116.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.107
  • 123 View
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Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background:

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the relational need scale. Based on previous studies, we presumed that relational need is comprised of the two independent concepts of approch and avoidance.

Methods:

The preliminary items were selected through a series of processes and they were analyzed in terms of item content, response distribution and correlations with other measures. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that approach and avoidance concepts were independent from each other.

Results:

As a result, the relational need scale was developed, consisting of 6 approach-type items for the relational need subscale and 11 items for the avoidance-type subscale. The two subscales are each subsumed by a one-factor model and a three-factor model, respectively. Specifically, the approach- type subscale has subfactors of ‘Intimate relationship tendency,’ whereas the avoidance-type subscale has the subfactors of ‘sensitivity to others evaluations,’ ‘sensitive to negative evaluations,’ and ‘awareness for others.’

Conclusions:

The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion-related validity of the scales were found to be adequate. This study revealed that the Korean version of relational need scale is reliable and valid. Finally, implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

The Effects of Monetary Motivation on the Relationship between Pain-Related Fear and Avoidance Behavior
Bun-Ok Kim, Kiseong Kim, Daeyong Shin, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2019;27(1):117-124.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.117
  • 109 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of monetary motivation on the relationship between pain-related fear and avoidance behavior.

Methods:

Eighty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups in accordance with task conditions of pain-related fear (high or low) and monetary motivation (high or low).

Results:

The autonomic nervous system was more active in the high pain-related fear group than in the low pain-related fear group as the participants watched a video and performed a task. Also, pain-related fear and monetary motivation had a significant interaction effect on avoidance behavior. High monetary motivation was associated with a shorter delay time during task performance in the high pain-related fear group. No significant difference was observed in the delay time in the low pain-related fear group.

Conclusions:

This study provides empirical evidence supporting the modified fear-avoidance model and experimentally proves the activation of the goal shielding mechanism.

Social Support Moderates the Impact of Pain-Related Threat on Avoidance Behavior
Ubin Yi, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2019;27(1):125-131.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.125
  • 110 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

According to the fear-avoidance model, pain becomes chronic when it is related to fear and avoidance behavior. When a pain-related threat occurs, humans instinctively use avoidance behavior strategies. However, the support of significant others is likely to inhibit avoidance behavior even with the same pain-related threat stimulus. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of pain-related threats and social support of romantic partner on avoidance behavior inhibition.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 80 pairs of healthy undergraduate couples, and were randomly assigned to one of four group conditions in a 2×2 factorial design, with threat level (high/low) and social support (presence/absence) as factors.

Results:

The results of the experiment indicated a significant interaction between threat level and social support. Specifically, in the high-threat condition, when social support was provided, task delay time was significantly shorter than when no social support was provided. On the other hand, in the low-threat condition, the time delay difference between high- and low- social support group was not significant. Moreover, social support did not affect fear reduction.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that avoidance behaviors, which are instinctive responses to pain, can be inhibited by social support. This result would enhance understanding of the factors that have not been described in the fear-avoidance model in the pain-chronicization process, and will help expand and improve the model. We also discuss possible limitations of the study and scope for further studies.


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