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Volume 26(4); December 2018
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Original Articles
Risk Factors to Cognitive Function and Life Satisfaction in Elderly Living Alone
Jee Young Lee
STRESS. 2018;26(4):259-267.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.259
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors influencing cognitive function and life satisfaction in elderly living alone.

Methods:

It was cross-sectional descriptive study by using secondary data from the 2014 national survey of Korean elderly. The study sample consisted of 2,249 subjects who live alone, aged 65 years old and over. Data were analyzed frequency analysis, χ2-test, t-test, ANOVA and Logistic regression analysis.

Results:

The risk factors that significantly influenced cognitive function were old age, bereavement, lack of education, no regular exercise and low socio-cultural activity satisfaction. The risk factors that significantly influenced life satisfaction were no bereavement, lack of education, no work, negative evaluation of health status, diagnosis of depression and no regular exercise. Also experience of emotional and economical abuse, neglect of financial support and low cognitive function were identified risk factors of life satisfaction.

Conclusions:

The elderly living alone with risk factors of cognitive decline should be interested. To prevent or delay cognitive impairment, regular exercise and socio-cultural activities were recommended. It was suggested that the promotion of cognitive function, appropriate work and exercise, and social efforts to prevent abuse and neglect can contribute to improving life satisfaction of elderly living alone

An Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Based Communication Training to Promote Communication Competency for Nursing Students
Hee-Jung Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):268-276.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.268
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the Motivational Interviewing (MI) based communication training for third-year nursing students.

Methods:

This study use a quasi-experimental design with pre and post-test to evaluate a 4–hour MI based communication training. This training was offered to 35 third-year nursing students who were participating in elective psychiatric nursing clerkship course. Each student completed pre and post questionnaire which includes assessment of motivational interviewing skills as measured by Helpful Response Questionnaire (HRQ). Also confidence (5 items) in using MI based communication knowledge and core skills were included. Data were independently analyzed by two coders and blindly rated the pre and post HRQ self-reported responses. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, descriptive analysis.

Results:

Nursing students showed increasing use of reflection (4.10∼5.67, p<.001), decreasing use of closed-ended question (2.00∼0.73, p<.001), road blocks (2.94∼0.64, p<.001), and improve in depth of reflection (12.79∼20.86 p<.001). But they did not show significant changes in open-ended question (2.01∼2.33, p=.257). Confidence in the interview has increased overall, except for reflecting. The overall satisfaction with the training was quite high, and the most helpful training method was group and individual feedback.

Conclusions:

This study provides evidences that 4 hour-training is effective in core skills such as reflection and depth of reflection, and also confidence in interviews. It is necessary to develop step-by-step training modules to enhance undergraduate communication skills. It is necessary to develop an effective training strategy focused on students’ confidence in open-ended questions and reflection.

Development and Validation of Short Form of the Normal Depression Scale for Individual Screening
Soonmook Lee, Jong-Nam Kim, Jungmin Chae, Seungwon Choi, Dong Gi Seo
STRESS. 2018;26(4):277-289.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.277
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background:

The purpose of this study is to develop a short form of the normal depression scale for individual use in the school, health, industry, organization, and counseling settings, based on the original normal depression scale (17 items).

Methods:

To achieve this purpose, we selected five items from the original test and analyzed data using Mplus 7.4 and SPSS 21.0.

Results:

The normal depression scale-short form consists of 5 items. The reliability of the short form (test-retest reliability) was good. The content validity and internal structure validity (1 factor model) were verified. The cut score between normal and dysfunctional depression was determined to be 18.

Conclusions:

The normal depression scale-short form for individual screening is verified to have good reliability and validity, so it is expected to be useful to perform quick screening of normal depression in the practical settings.

The Relationship between Unstable Attachment and Subjective Well-Being: Mediating Effect of Decentering and Self-Compassion
Yong Hee Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):290-295.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.290
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The aim of this study were to investigate the effect of unstable attachment on subjective well-being and to identify mediator effects of decentering and self-compassion.

Methods:

A total of 255 college students participated in this study by completing the following questionnaires: Experience in Close Relationship Scale, Subjective Well-being Questionnaire, Decentering Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale.

Results:

Mediated Regression Analysis was used for the purposes of study. The results are as the following. First, unstable attachment had significant negative correlation with subjective well-being and decentering and self-compassion. Second, decentering had a partial meditational effect on the relation between unstable attachment and subjective well-being. Third, self-compassion had completely meditational effect on the relation between unstable attachment and subjective well-being.

Conclusions:

These results suggested that it is important to enhance students’ level of decentering and self-compassion in order to increase their subjective well-being effectively.

The Effects of a Self-Compassion Program on Body Satisfaction, Body Shame, Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being among Female University Students with Negative Body Image
Ye Ji Kwon, Jung-Ho Kim, Mirihae Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):296-304.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.296
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  • 17 Download
  • 4 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a Self-Compassion Program on body satisfaction, body shame, self-esteem and subjective well-being among female university students with negative body image.

Methods:

Study participants were composed of the top 35% of female college students on negative body image. The 25 participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n=13) or a control group (n=12). The treatment group participated in weekly, 60-minute Self-Compassion Program sessions in a group format over a 6-week period.

Results:

Reports of body dissatisfaction and body shame decreased significantly more in the treatment group compared to the control group, while self-esteem, life satisfaction, and expected life satisfaction scores increased significantly more in the treatment group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in positive affect and negative affect between groups at post treatment. The one-month follow-up results showed that the beneficial improvements were maintained.

Conclusions:

The findings support the efficacy of the Self-Compassion Program on body dissatisfaction, body shame and self-esteem.

Role of the Baseline Heart Rate Variability to the Effect of the Huanglian-Jie-Du Granule in Hwa-Byung Patients: Supplementary Analysis from the Randomized Trial Comparing Huanglian-Jie-Du Granule and Placebo for Hwa-Byung
Yu-Jin Choi, Seung-Hun Cho
STRESS. 2018;26(4):305-311.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.305
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of the study was to explore whether the effect of Huanglian-jie-du granule depends on the baseline heart rate variability in patients with Hwa-byung.

Methods:

We used the supplementary data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Huanglian-jie-du granule for Hwa-byung patients. Study drugs were taken orally three times per day for one week. Heart rate variability was measured three times; before the treatment, after the treatment, and month follow-up period. Spearman’s rho test was done to explore the role of the baseline heart rate variability to the effect of Huanglian-jie-du granule.

Results:

Baseline low frequency power of heart rate variability was negatively correlated with the reduction of the insomnia severity index in experimental group (r=−0.493 p=0.02). Also, Huanglian-jie-de granule significantly decreased the low frequency power of heart rate variability in patients with Hwa-byung compared to placebo (mean difference 266 [95% CI: 29∼503], p=0.028). In Hwa-byung symptoms, stuffy, pushing up in the chest, and flush of anger were correlated with low frequency power of heart rate variability (p=0.010, p=0.000, and p=0.016, respectively).

Conclusions:

The effect of the Huanglian-jie-de granule for insomnia seems to be lower when the baseline low frequency power of heart rate variability is higher in Hwa-byung patients. Also, Huanglian-jie-de granule is likely to decrease the sympathetic activity in patients with Hwa-byung. Measurement of heart rate variability may be the useful to understand the state of Hwa-byung patients.

The Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Stress and Psychological Well-Being in Parents with 3 to 5-Year-Old Children
Eunjin Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):312-318.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.312
  • 144 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of daily mindfulness in parents with 3 to 5-year-old children on their stress and psychological well-being.

Methods:

Based on the previous studies, this study established a research model in which parent’s mindfulness affects their psychological well-being by the mediation of stress, and verified the relationship between them using 283 parents data set.

Results:

First, mindfulness and psychological well-being in the ages of 40s was significantly higher than the 20s∼30s. Second, parent’s mindfulness and psychological well-being showed high positive correlation, and stress showed high negative correlation with mindfulness and psychological well-being. Third, it was verified that mindfulness not only directly affects psychological well-being but also indirectly influences psychological well-being by reducing their stress.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that daily mindfulness in parents with 3 to 5-year-old children is effective in managing their stress and improving their psychological well-Being.

The Effects of Life Changes on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Disasters
Hye Sun Lim, Kyungok Sim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):319-326.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.319
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  • 4 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study investigated whether pre- and peri-disaster experiences influence on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and whether post-disaster stress by life changes have impact on PTSD after controlling pre- and peri-disaster factors.

Methods:

Data came from a sample of 1,182 respondents who experienced natural disasters (flood and typhoon) in South Korea from 2012 to 2015. The SPSS Win 22.0 program was used for descriptive analysis, t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation and logistic regression analysis.

Results:

The results indicated that 24.3% of the disaster victims were in PTSD risk group. Compared with non-PTSD, PTSD risk group showed lower interpersonal trust and satisfaction, higher depression and anxiety, and lower subjective well-being. The results of hierarchical logistc regression revealed that all pre-, peri-, and post-disaster factors increased the probability of developing PTSD, except for relocation of residence. Moreover, a primary post-disaster predictor of PTSD was economic distress after controlling for pre- and peri-disaster.

Conclusions:

This study tested relative contributions of post-disaster factors on PTSD.

The Influence of Job Stress and Managerial Efficacy on Job Satisfaction among Korean Women Managers: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Managerial Efficacy
Ki Tae Park, Wonjung Noh
STRESS. 2018;26(4):327-331.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.327
  • 115 View
  • 1 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

For efficient management of an organization’s human resource, it is crucial to increase the job satisfaction of women managers, since it is closely related to an individual’s job performance and company’s one. In this regard, this research explores how women managers’ job stress and managerial efficacy affect their job satisfaction.

Methods:

This research uses the fifth wave of Korean Women Manager Panel (KWMP) collected in 2015. The 1,537 women managers who work at a company with 100 or more employees are employed and the data are analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS).

Results:

Income, job stress, and managerial efficacy have a statistically significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, managerial efficacy has a moderating effect between job-related stress and job satisfaction.

Conclusions:

This study suggests the meaningful findings that in terms of boosting women manager’s job satisfaction, it is requested to promote their managerial efficacy at the human resource management level.

The Influence of Covert Narcissistic Tendency on Interpersonal Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness
Hye Ji Yun, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2018;26(4):332-339.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.332
  • 99 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating effect of ambivalence over emotional expressiveness on the relationship between covert narcissistic tendency of adults in their twenties and the satisfaction of interpersonal relations.

Methods:

194 male and female adults in their twenties completed the self-report questionnaires on covert narcissism, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and interpersonal satisfaction. A mediated model was tested using the SPSS Macro by Hayes.

Results:

We verified that the ambivalence over emotional expressiveness played a mediating role in the relationship between covert narcissistic tendency and interpersonal satisfaction. In terms of the characteristics of relationship, except for the superior person, the relationship between lover/spouse and friends/colleagues showed the mediating effect between covert narcissism and interpersonal satisfaction.

Conclusions:

The covert narcissistic tendency itself affects low interpersonal satisfaction, but the ambivalence over emotional expressiveness affects low interpersonal satisfaction when the covert narcissist interacts with lover/spouse, friends/colleagues. We discussed the directions of intervention for the covert narcissist having low satisfaction in relationships, limitations and future suggestions of this research.

The Effect of Call Center Consultant ’s Emotional Labor on Burnout: The Moderating Effect of Resilience and Social Support
Hayoung Park, Jungkyu Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(4):340-349.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.340
  • 139 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of resilience and social support to analyze that call center consultants’ emotional labor impacts on the burnout.

Methods:

A survey questionnaire was conducted to people who work at call center in Gwangju and Deagu. The data from 444 were analyzed.

Results:

The result from the hierarchical multiple regression is as follows. First, deep acting decreased burnout, but surface acting of emotional labor increased burnout. Also, frequency of emotion display, variety of emotion required to be expressed and attentiveness to required display rules increased burnout. Second, Resilience had moderating effect between deep acting and burnout. Third, the moderate effect of interaction of social support from leader with surface action was found at burnout. Also, moderating effect of social support from leader were shown in frequency of emotion display with burnout and attentiveness to required display rules with burnout. Fourth, social support from colleague did not have buffering effect on emotional labor and burnout.

Conclusions:

It is expected that the moderator variables identified in this study can be used for prevention and treatment of burnout caused by emotional labor.

Intolerance of Uncertainty, Negative Problem Orientation on Worry
Hae Ran Suh, Bong-Keon Lee
STRESS. 2018;26(4):350-355.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.350
  • 126 View
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of negative problem orientation in the association between intolerance uncertainty and worry.

Methods:

Participants who were 531 undergraduate students in Chungbuk were administered Intolerance Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Negative Problem Orientation (NPO; SPSI-R), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ).

Results:

The results are as follows. Intolerance of uncertainty had statistically significant positive correlation with worry. Negative problem orientation had a partial mediating effect in the association between intolerance uncertainty and worry.

Conclusions:

This result suggested the importance of intolerance of uncertainty and negative problem orientation in psychological approach to university students who have difficulty in worry.

Clinical Research Trends in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Morita Therapy in China
Jong Min Hong, Seung-Hun Cho
STRESS. 2018;26(4):356-364.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.4.356
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Abstract PDF
Background:

This study was performed to review the research trends in the treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder with Morita therapy in China.

Methods:

We searched articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) regarding Morita therapy and “obsessive-compulsive disorder” in medicine and the public health field. And 23 studies were selected and classified. Five before-after comparison studies and 18 randomized controlled trials were performed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in China.

Results:

Morita therapy and western medicine were used for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of the studies reported that groups treated with Morita therapy as well as western medicine showed much positive results than those groups treated with western medicine alone.

Conclusions:

According to this study, Morita therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder would be an effective and safe intervention. Further clinical studies on the use of Morita therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder should be done in Korea in the near future.


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