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Volume 26(3); September 2018
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Original Articles
The Role of Attentional Bias and Event-Related Ruminations in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth
Hae Lim Noh, KyungHun Han, Eun-Jung Shim
STRESS. 2018;26(3):123-132.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.123
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between attentional bias to threat and positive stimuli (i.e., facilitated attentional engagement, difficulty in attentional disengagement, and attentional avoidance) and event-related rumination, and to examine whether the latter mediated the relationship between attentional bias and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in individuals with traumatic experiences.

Methods:

A total of 70 college students with traumatic experiences participated in the study. Attentional bias to threat and positive stimuli was measured by employing a spatial cueing task. Other variables were assessed using self-report measures including The Impact of Event-Related Scale-Revised, Event-Related Rumination Inventory, Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Results:

The results indicated that attentional avoidance was significantly associated with intrusive rumination, whereas none of the three aspects of attention bias was associated with deliberate rumination. Furthermore, attentional avoidance was related to increased intrusive rumination, which in turn, was associated with increased PTSS. Additionally, difficulty in attentional disengagement from threat stimuli was associated with finding new possibilities, one aspect of a PTG, even after controlling for the impact of deliberate rumination.

Conclusions:

The current results suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at helping individuals not to avoid but accept their traumatic experience may be effective to overcome trauma and facilitate PTG among individuals with traumatic experiences.

Gender Differences in Type D Personality and Mental Health among Korean College Entrants
Sunhee Cho, Gyeong-Suk Jeon
STRESS. 2018;26(3):133-139.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.133
  • 158 View
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  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in impacts of Type D personality on mental health among Korean college entrants.

Methods:

A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted. A sample size of 75 male and 138 female students residing in Jeonnam province completed the instruments of Type D personality, perceived stress, coping, and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed by t-test and multiple regression.

Results:

Approximately 55.1% of female and 36.0% of male respondents were Type D. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms in Type D group were higher than in non-Type D group. Type D personality score was associated with perceived stress (β=0.40), problem focused coping (β=−0.32) among male college entrants. In female group, Type D personality score was associated with perceived stress (β=0.43), depressive symptoms (β=0.42), seeking social support (β=−0.25), and wishful thinking (β=0.20).

Conclusions:

Male and female college entrants with Type D personality are more vulnerable in mental health. In addition, there are gender differences in Type D personality, stress, and coping strategies. We suggest the need of gender perspective to develop mental health program for college students.

Validation Study of the Korean Self Rated Abilities for Health Practices: Health Self-Efficacy Measure (K-SRAHP)
Jungeun Lee, Hyun-gi Hong, Jisun Park
STRESS. 2018;26(3):140-148.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.140
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  • 31 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background:

The current study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Self Rated Abilities for Health Practices: Health Self-Efficacy Measure (SRAHP), originally developed by Becker et al. (1993).

Methods:

Two hundred and seventy-eight college students participated in this study.

Results:

The inter-item reliability was high (Cronbach alpha=0.909). Factor analysis produced 6 factors of subscales (i.e., exercise, illness, emotion, nutrition, stress, and health practice subscales), which is more ramified compared to original study with 4 subscales (i.e., exercise, well-being, nutrition, health practices). The correlation analyses between K-SRAHP and the self-promoting lifestyle profile, the generalized self-efficacy scale, the perceived benefits scale, and the social desirability scale supported criterion-related validity.

Conclusions:

The reliability and validity of K-SRAHP to measure self-efficacy of health practice was validated. Additionally, the limitations and suggestions for further studies were provided.

Experience of Adaptation to School Life in South Korea of North Korean Defector Youths: Based on Focus Group Research Method
Young Suk Park
STRESS. 2018;26(3):149-158.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.149
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Abstract PDF
Background:

This study is a qualitative research conducted to identify the core theme and essence of the North Korean defector youths by intensively exploring the experience of adapting to school life in South Korea.

Methods:

The participants were 11 young people of 20∼25 year olds who had attended middle and high school in South Korea. The data was collected through focus group interviews and analyzed by content analysis.

Results:

The results found 5 clusters of theme, 14 themes, 34 categories. The 5 clusters of theme were ‘Astonishment in a new country’, ‘Hard to bear existential pain’, ‘Desperate struggles to survive’, ‘Two-facedness of support inside and outside of school’, ‘Unfinished burden of reality’.

Conclusions:

This research suggest that practical ways to help the youths such as authentic approaches, necessary information and material support, support for making friends and friendship, providing college admission information and support, parent training and mentoring.

The Mediating Effect of Cognitive Flexibility in the Relationship between Emotional Clarity and Emotion Regulation: Comparison of Self-Reported and Task Measurement of Cognitive Flexibility
Soomin Kim, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2018;26(3):159-165.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.159
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study investigates the function of cognitive flexibility in the relationship between emotional clarity and emotion regulation and examines the differential effect between belief and ability for cognitive flexibility on them.

Methods:

The 151 participants respond to the questionnaires measuring emotional clarity, emotion regulation, and cognitive flexibility, which is also measured by task reflecting on real ability.

Results:

Data from this study show that self-reported cognitive flexibility mediates the effect of emotional clarity on emotion regulation. Cognitive flexibility measured by task has no mediating effect on them.

Conclusions:

These results suggest the cognitive flexibility play a role in the mechanism linking emotional clarity to emotion regulation and belief of own’s ability to cope flexibly is more important than real ability. Finally, this paper includes implications, limitations, and suggestions for the future study.

The Effects of Emotional Labor on Job Satisfaction of Hotel Employees: Analyzing Moderating Effects of Emotional Intelligence
Kwang-Hi Park
STRESS. 2018;26(3):166-172.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.166
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  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The aims of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction of hotel employees and to find a way to increase job satisfaction of them.

Methods:

This study is a cross-sectional empirical study conducted for hotel employees in Korea. A total of 314 completed responses were collected and analyzed. Hierarchical regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses.

Results:

Emotional dissonance decrease job satisfaction, but emotional effort improves it. “Ability to understand emotion” and “ability to understand others’ emotion” are moderating factors that increase job satisfaction joining with emotional effort.

Conclusions:

In order for hotel employees to be satisfied with their jobs, it is necessary to develop and implement an emotional intelligence improvement education program that can improve job satisfaction by positively moderating emotional labor.

Development of Submodules of the Korean Dysfunctional Depression Scale: A Preliminary Study
Jong Nam Kim, Seungwon Choi, Sunho Jung, Heon Jeong Lee, Chul-Hyun Cho, Saebom Park, Da Eun Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(3):173-185.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.173
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background:

The purpose of this study is to develop the Korean dysfunctional depression submodule scales, which are composed of hwa-byung, mood dysregulation, female depression, anxiety, spouse conflict and suicidal risk.

Methods:

To achieve this purpose, we developed preliminary items of six submodules through the theoretical approach and experiential approach. Then we collected data from professionals and para-professionals in mental health area (n=407) and 275 data were used to analyzed. Correlation with criterion, item information function, item-total correlation, and explorative factor analysis are performed using Mplus 7.4 and SPSS 21.0.

Results:

6 submodules of the Korean dysfunctional depression are composed of 8 items for Hwa-byung, 7 items for mood dysregulation, 7 items for female depression, 7 items for anxiety, 7 items for spouse-conflict and 9 items for suicidal risk. Reliability of submodules are .84∼.93.

Conclusions:

These submodules of the Korean dysfunctional depression scale are verified to have high reliability and expected to be useful to assess the specific and various features of the dysfunctional depression.

Effects of Coping Strategies on Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among General Population
Youji Jung, Sori Kim, Subin Park, Jung Hyun Lee
STRESS. 2018;26(3):186-192.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.186
  • 133 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

Numerous studies have accumulated findings indicating that the way of coping is a critical mediator in the relation between these traumatic events and psychological outcomes. This study investigates the associations between coping strategies and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in Korean adults.

Methods:

Through an online survey, 554 non-clinical adult respondents were recruited. We assessed PTSS using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) scale and measured individual coping strategies using the Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL). Based on the IES-R standard cut-off score, we categorized the respondents into 3 groups: normal (n=255), non-PTSS (n=185) and PTSS (n=144) after exposure to traumatic events.

Results:

The scores of each coping strategy in a PTSS group were generally higher than in either the normal or non-PTSS group. In the logistic regression analysis, PTSS group was 2.77 more likely to use Tension-reduction coping compared to the other two samples.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that PTSS is associated with high inclination to apply emotion-focused coping such as tension-reduction contributing to psychological distress. These results point to the potential value of coping strategies in prevention of and therapeutic approach to PTSS for non-clinical adults.

Exploring the Posttraumatic Growth in Korean Children and Adolescents Using the Korean Version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children-Revised
Gyurim Kang, Hyojeong Na, Jay Song, Myoung-Ho Hyun
STRESS. 2018;26(3):193-200.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.193
  • 141 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The present study aimed to explore psychometric properties of Korean version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children-Revised (PTGI-C-R), and related variables.

Methods:

The PTGI-C-R was translated into Korean and 716 children and adolescents in a general population sample completed a self-report battery.

Results:

361 participants reported experiencing of traumatic event and 145 among them showed clinical symptoms. In clinical group, Korean version of PTGI-C-R has exhibited good internal consistency and construct validity. Those who experienced traumatic event reported more PTG than unexperienced group. PTG was positively related with resilience, optimism, and rumination, but negatively related with depression and anxiety, also nonlinearly related with intensity of perceived stress.

Conclusions:

This study found the distinct changes of PTG from normative maturation by comparing those who experienced traumatic event and those who did not.

The Relationship between Negative Affect-Intensity and Depression: Moderated Mediating Effect of Self-Compassion through Non-Mentalization
Yong Hee Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(3):201-207.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.201
  • 93 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderated mediating effect of self-compassion through non-mentalization on the relationship between negative affect intensity and depression.

Methods:

A total of 289 college students participated in this study by completing the following questionnaires: Affect Intensity Measure, Mentalization Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale, and The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.

Results:

First, all variables in this study were statistically significant correlation. Second, partial mediation effect of non-mentalization on the relationship between negative affect intensity and depression were found. Third, moderation effect of self-compassion on the relationship between non-mentalization and depression were found also. Finally, self-compassion moderated the mediating effect of negative affect intensity on depression through non-mentalization.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that it is important to enhance students’ level of mentalization and self-compassion in order to alleviate their depression. effectively.

The Effect of Teacher Mindfulness on Job Stress and Burnout
Eunjin Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(3):208-214.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.208
  • 124 View
  • 4 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of teacher mindfulness in teaching settings on job stress and burnout.

Methods:

Based on the previous studies, this study established a research model in which the teachers’ job stress affects their burnout by the mediation of mindfulness, and verified the relationship between them using the teacher mindfulness scale in teaching situations.

Results:

First, female teachers perceived more job stress and experienced higher burnout than male teachers. Second, teacher’s job stress and burnout showed high positive correlation, and mindfulness showed high negative correlation with job stress and burnout. Third, it was verified that teacher mindfulness significantly mediated the effect of job stress on burnout.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that teachers’ mindfulness is effective in managing their job stress and preventing burnout.

The Mediating Effects of Food Craving on the Relationship between Stress and Obesity in Elderly
Ju Yeun Kim
STRESS. 2018;26(3):215-222.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.215
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  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background::

The purpose of this study was to examine whether food craving mediated effects on the relationship between stress and obesity in the elderly population.

Methods::

A descriptive correlational study was conducted. The participants included 256 elderly who had been attending three geriatric welfare facilities in J city. Data were collected between 9th and 20th, July 2018 with a structured questionnaire and body measurement. The measurements included G-FCQ-T, SRI-MF, and BMI. The statistical analysis included t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach’s α, and mediation analysis with bootstrapping as recommended by Hayes’ PROCESS macro (2016).

Results::

Mean BMI score was 23.95±3.79 kg/m2 and the prevalence of obesity was 25.8%. Significant difference were observed in the age (χ2=19.54, p<.001), gender (χ2=13.80, p<.001), education (χ2=7.43, p=.024), number of diseases (χ2=12.69, p=.002), medication (χ2=18.82, p< .001), stress (t=−2.57 p=.011), and food craving (t=−2.63 p=.003). Stress and food craving (r=.50, p<.001), food craving and obesity (r=.23, p<.001), and obesity and stress (r=.28 p<.001) were found to be positively correlated with each other. Food craving was found to mediate the relationship between stress and obesity in the elderly population (B=0.38 (SE=0.19), 95% CI, [0.05, 0.79]).

Conclusions::

We need therapeutic intervention with a focus on food craving for weight management in obese elderly people and the development of a nursing intervention to control elderly food craving.

A Study on Stressors of Initiation and Repetition of Serious Juvenile Delinquency
Joon Beom Kim, Ha Yeon Park
STRESS. 2018;26(3):223-230.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.223
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Abstract PDF
Background:

This study aims to examine the influence of stressors on initiation and repetition of serious juvenile delinquency, and to provide grounds for intervention.

Methods:

For these purposes, 8,418 responses from the “A study on supporting mental health promotion for children and adolescents” data of the National Youth Policy Institute (NYPI) were utilized.

Results:

The results indicate that (1) 27.5% of adolescents experienced serious juvenile delinquency, (2) family and teacher relationship stress, and appearance stress were associated with the initiation of serious juvenile delinquency, and (3) All relationship stressors; family, teacher, peer, and senior-junior relationship stress had a significant effect on the repetition of serious juvenile delinquency.

Conclusions:

Regarding these findings, implications for intervention and further research were provided.

Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Pain, Pain Interference, and Life Satisfaction for the Elderly People with Chronic Pain
Jaesook Shin, Bong-keon Lee
STRESS. 2018;26(3):231-242.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.231
  • 144 View
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Abstract PDF
Background:

The population of the aged has been rapidly increasing worldwide, and about 50% of them are under chronic pain by irreversible degenerative diseases. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) on pain, pain interference, and life satisfaction in people with chronic pain. In addition, this study proposed that anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, psychological inflexibility in pain, pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are mediating the effectiveness of ACT.

Methods:

Participants of ACT program for this study comprised the elderly aged 65 and over who had been suffering from chronic pain for at least 6 months and reported their pain intensity of at least five on the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale, 0-10). During the sessions, experimental group participated in the ACT program designed by Stoddard and Wetherell(2011) and the control group received health education. After finishing eight sessions of each program, data from 25 participants in the experimental group and 27 in the control group were used for the final analysis.

Results:

The results showed that the ACT program is significantly more effective on relieving pain, pain interference, anxiety, and psychological inflexibility in pain than health education program. However, anxiety and psychological inflexibility did not have significant mediating effects on pain and pain interference.

Conclusions:

Finally, this study has verified the curative effect of ACT for elderly people suffering from chronic pain. Therefore, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can be used for supplementary treatment for patients with degenerative disease.

The Mediating Effect of Mindfulness in the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Burnout among Clinical Nurses
Hanju Bea, Heekyung Chang, Young Eun
STRESS. 2018;26(3):243-249.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2018.26.3.243
  • 166 View
  • 6 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of mindfulness on the relationships between self-esteem and burnout among nurses.

Methods:

A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was conducted using purposive sampling of 132 nurses at two university hospitals in J city and C city. It was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis using SPSS 20.0 program.

Results:

There were significant correlations among self-esteem, mindfulness and burnout. Self-esteem and mindfulness were negatively correlated with burnout among nurses. Mindfulness acts as a mediator in explaining relationship between self-esteem and burnout.

Conclusions:

Our results provide evidence for the role of mindfulness in the relationship between self-esteem and burnout in professional nurses. Mindfulness appears to be a protective factor against nurses’ burnout. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training intervention suitable for nurses would be useful to reduce nurses’ high levels of job burnout and risk of turnover and increase patients’ satisfaction with their care.


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