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Volume 25(4); December 2017
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Review Article
Understanding and Treatment of Somatic Symptom Disorder -According to Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-V-
Eurah Goh
STRESS. 2017;25(4):213-219.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.213
  • 261 View
  • 22 Download
Abstract PDF

Somatic symptom and related disorder which is matched somatoform disorder in DSM-IV, is defined as a group of diseases that shows somatic symptoms with significant distress and impairment according to DSM-V. This is a very common disease in primary care, however, tends to be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed because of its polymorphic symptomatic expressions. This review tried to help understanding somatic symptom and related disorder and its subcategorized diseases-somatic symptom disorder, illness anxiety disorder, factitious disorder and other specified and unspecified somatic symptom and related disorder.

Original Articles
Factors Affecting Burnout among Coast Guard of West Regional Headquarters in Korea
Eun Jung Yeom, Sunhee Cho
STRESS. 2017;25(4):220-226.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.220
  • 127 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

Purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of burnout and to explore factors affecting burnout among coast guard of west regional headquarters in Korea.

Methods:

Self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 250 coast guard members working in west sea area. A total of 238 data were analyzed with frequency analysis, t-test or ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis.

Results:

The mean score for burnout (2.38±0.91), depression (6.38±5.28), secondary traumatic stress (2.25±0.63), job stress (2.70±0.78), and social support (3.50±0.72) were presented. The significant major predictors of burnout were job stress, depression, social support, current work unit-office, current work unit-vessel, satisfaction with work unit-dissatisfaction, and satisfaction with work unit-medium. Explanatory power for variables was 61.3%.

Conclusions:

To prevent and manage burnout on proper level, it is recommended to develop and implement support programs to lower job stress and depression while boosting familial and social support.

The Role of Mindfulness in the Relationship between Borderline Personality Trait and Psychological Distress
Hyejeen Lee
STRESS. 2017;25(4):227-232.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.227
  • 117 View
  • 3 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of mindfulness on the relationship between borderline personality trait and psychological distress.

Methods:

529 female undergraduates participated to complete self-report questionnaires.

Results:

Correlational analyses showed that borderline personality trait was positively associated with psychological distress and negatively associated with mindfulness, and mindfulness was negatively related to psychological distress. Regression analyses suggested that low level of mindfulness partially mediated the relationship between borderline personality trait and psychological distress. Among mindfulness facets ‘acting with awareness,’ ‘nonjudging,’ and ‘nonreactivity’ had significant mediating effects.

Conclusions:

Borderline personality trait affects psychological distress through low mindfulness―specifically in acting with awareness, nonjudging, or nonreactivity. This finding suggests that intervention focusing on these mindfulness facets may be helpful for those with borderline trait and psychological distress.

A Moderating Effect of Adaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation on the Relationship between Internalized Shame and Adaption to College of Chinese International Students
Hae-kyung Koo, Yun-Kyung Cho, Hee-Joong Kim, Myoung-Ho Hyun, Xinyu Gu
STRESS. 2017;25(4):233-238.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.233
  • 130 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of present study was to examine a relation between internalized shame and adaption to college life of Chinese international students and to identify a moderating role of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation on this relation. 

Methods:

A sample of 173 Chinese international students in Seoul was recruited to answer the questionnaires of internalized shame, adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (acceptance & positive reappraisal) and adaption to college. 

Results:

Internalized shame showed a significant negative correlation with adaption to college. So, the higher internalized shame was, the lower adaption to college showed. And the internalized shame was negative effect on level of adaption to college when level of acceptance was high, but the effect of internalized shame on adaptation to college was disappeared when level of acceptance was low. The similar result was also found in positive reappraisal. So, the moderating effect of acceptance and positive reappraisal on the relation between internalized shame and adaption to college was confirmed.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that during clinical intervention, practitioners should consider internalized shame as a risk factor and cognitive emotion regulation as a protective factor when dealing with foreign students’ adaption in college.  

Effects of Aromatherapy Footbath on Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity
Ju-mi Ahn, Myung-Haeng Hur
STRESS. 2017;25(4):239-245.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.239
  • 162 View
  • 6 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

A quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control groups was performed to determine an effect of aromatherapy foot bath on stress and autonomic nervous activity.

Methods:

To confirm the effect of aromatherapy foot bath, aromatherapy foot bath group was asked to have a bathing by dropping 0.5 cc in 18 L water after blending with a ratio of 6:3:1 with essential oil lavender, lemon, and tea tree and a foot bath group was asked for bathing only by water.

Results:

Aromatherapy foot bath group showed significant decrease in subjective stress score (t=3.465, p=0.001) and stress index (t=3.021, p=0.004) in addition to simultaneous increase in sympathetic nervous activity (t=−2.913, p=0.005). However, no significant stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system was observed (t=−1.831, p=0.072).

Conclusions:

As aromatherapy foot bath is a possible effective intervention for stress relief, it can be applied as an effective method to relieve the stress for healthy adults and patients.

The Relationship between Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism, and Speech Anxiety in College Students: The Serial Multiple Mediation Effects of Internalized Shame and Intolerance of Uncertainty
Hye-Ryeong Park, Jong-Sun Lee
STRESS. 2017;25(4):246-254.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.246
  • 146 View
  • 5 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological mechanisms of the variables affecting speech anxiety.

Methods:

A total of 550 undergraduate and graduate students, who agreed to take part in the current study, participated and data were collected through online survey. A serial multiple mediated model was tested using the SPSS macro by Hayes.

Results:

Internalized shame and intolerance of uncertainty completely mediated the relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and speech anxiety. Serial multiple mediating effects of internalized shame, and intolerance of uncertainty were also verified.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that intervention on trait variable that targets the internalized shame and intolerance of uncertainty may be helpful in reducing speech anxiety in undergraduate and graduate students.

The Impact of Sleep Disorder and Job Stress on Turnover Intention of Shift-Working Nurses
Eun Ok Yang, In Ryung Choi, Seong-Min Kim
STRESS. 2017;25(4):255-264.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.255
  • 156 View
  • 6 Download
  • 9 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study is a descriptive survey research that aims to provide basic data for efficient human resource management that can contribute to reducing turnover rate among nurses, by identifying the impact of sleep disorder and job stress on the turnover intention of shift working nurses and understanding the key factors influencing their turnover intention.

Methods:

The subjects of this research were 188 nurses working 8-hour shifts in J-city, G-city and N-city, of which 13 respondents who produced unreliable answers were excluded from the analysis, making the total number of valid questionnaire 175. Collected data were analyzed with a SPSS 12.0 program using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, correlation and stepwise multiple regression.

Results:

As for correlation between domains, sleep disorder and turnover intention had positive correlation. Between job stress and turnover intention, the total job stress was positively correlated with turnover intention. Variables influencing turnover intention among the subjects were; the more clinically experienced, and in regards to job stress, the less adapted to workplace climate, the lower the level of payment and the more serious the sleep disorder.

Conclusions:

In conclusion, as a nurse in shift work, the more clinical experience, the less the salary, the more sleeping obstacles, the less the job adaptation to the work culture, the more the degree of turnover is found to be high.

Influence of University Students’ Stress on Drinking Problem: Mediating Effect of Alcohol Expectancy and Moderating Effect of Stress Coping
Eunyoung Park
STRESS. 2017;25(4):265-271.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.265
  • 179 View
  • 10 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study was performed to identify the mediating effect of alcohol expectancy and moderating effect of coping response on the relation between university students’ stress and drinking problem.

Methods:

Data collected from 264 university students’ self-report questionnaire, including life daily stress, alcohol expectancy, coping response, drinking problem were analyzed.

Results:

The mediating effect of alcohol expectancy was significant (β=.26, p<.001). Although, the moderating effect of approach coping response was not significant, the moderating effect of avoidance coping response was significant (β=.12, p<.01).

Conclusions:

These results suggest that treatment and intervention for drinking problems of university students’ must pay attention on alcohol expectancy and try to decrease the preference of avoidance coping response.

A Bifactor Approach to the Factor Structure Study of the CES-D Scale
Jaeeun Shin, Taehun Lee, So Jin Yun
STRESS. 2017;25(4):272-278.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.272
  • 219 View
  • 8 Download
  • 8 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Korean version of CES-D scale by applying the bifactor model. Many studies for validating the CES-D scale have supported the four-factor structure. But some studies found that the three factor structure provided a more appropriate solution. Such inconsistency in the number and structure of factors led us to conduct two studies to clarify the structure of dimensionality of the CES-D-K scale.

Methods:

In study 1, we factor-analyzed the response patterns to the abbreviated CES-D-K scale (11-item, N=12,309) included the Korean Welfare Panel Study. In study 2, we factor-analyzed the data obtained from 223 college and graduate students who responded to the 20-item CES-D-K scale. Correlational analyses were also conducted to investigate criterion validity of the CES-D-K scale with external variables that are theoretically related to depression. The fit indexes of a single-factor model, a four-factors model, and a bifactor model were compared. The Omega coefficients and Explained Common Variance (ECV) were also computed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CES–D-K scale more accurately.

Results:

The results showed that the CES-D-K scale has a high value of Omega-Hierarchical for the total score, low values of Omega-Hierarchical for the subscale scores, and a high ECV value.

Conclusions:

Therefore, we concluded that, as the scale with a strong general factor, the use of the scale score can accomplish the goal of measuring individual differences on the target construct of depression with little to no gain from constructing subscale scores.

The Mediating Effects of Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance on the Relationship between Stress and Internet/Smartphone Addiction in Adolescents
Hyejeen Lee
STRESS. 2017;25(4):279-285.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.279
  • 185 View
  • 5 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study examined the mediating effects of experiential avoidance on the relationship between stress and internet/smartphone addiction in adolescents.

Methods:

448 middle school students completed the self-report questionnaires on school stress, home stress, multidimensional experiential avoidance, and internet/smartphone addiction.

Results:

Regression analyses and tests of indirect effects using bootstrapping showed that ‘procrastination’ and ‘distress aversion’ factors of experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between stress (school, home) and internet/smartphone addiction.

Conclusions:

Stress increases internet/smartphone addiction through procrastination or distress aversion in adolescents. Interventions should focus not only on stress but also on experiential avoidance.

The Mediating Effect of Perceived Stress in the Relationships among Mindfulness, Self-compassion, and Maternal-fetal Attachment
Jeong Mun Heo, Min Jeong Kim, Wan Suk Gim
STRESS. 2017;25(4):286-293.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.286
  • 160 View
  • 4 Download
  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The stress pregnant women feel causes adverse effects on healthy maternal-fetal attachment and accordingly, it is necessary to investigate the psychological factors that can alleviate it.

Methods:

The present study set a structural equation model to investigate whether mindfulness and self-compassion, which are valuable for mental health, promote maternal-fetal attachment by reducing the perceived stress. A total of 251 responses were collected through local hospitals, community health centers, and pregnancy- and child care-related online community web sites, and data were tested using a AMOS.

Results:

The results showed that the full mediation model in which each aspect of mindfulness and self-compassion promotes maternal-fetal attachment through perceived stress is most appropriate.

Conclusions:

The significance of the present study lies in looking into the relationships among these factors that have been researched individually so far by integrating them into a model. The limitations of the present study and directions for future research were discussed in the conclusion section.

Difference of Menstrual Problems according to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among North Korean Woman Defectors in South Korea
HeeSook Kim, HyunKyoung Kim
STRESS. 2017;25(4):294-298.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.294
  • 149 View
  • 3 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study investigated the difference of menstrual problems according to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among North Korean woman defectors in South Korea.

Methods:

The 127 North Korean women in government resettlement centers in South Korea responded to a Likert scale questionnaire of Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) on December 2012. Data was analyzed using mean and t-test.

Results:

The mean number of menstrual problem was 1.5 (SD=1.5) in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD group had more menstrual problems (Mean=2.2, SD=1.5) than non-PTSD group and this difference was statistically significant (t=-2.32, p=0.022).

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that psychological intervention is necessary for North Korean woman defectors who have traumatic experiences and menstrual problems.

The Effect of Stress on the Subjective Discomfort and Skin Conductance Level in Adults with ADHD Tendency
Suim Yang, Yongmae Baek
STRESS. 2017;25(4):299-305.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.299
  • 134 View
  • 2 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this research was to study an effect of stress stimulation on Skin Conductance Level and subjective discomfort on adult groups with ADHD tendency (12 people) and control group (12 people).

Methods:

In order to measure the physiological stress responses, all experiment participators’ Skin Conductance Level was checked through the bio-feedback equipment on the participators’ bodies, which relayed information in the process of the baseline period, the Stroop word-color test period, the resting period, the mental arithmetic test period and the resting period. The subjective discomfort was measured by setting the inconvenience level while taking the tests as a 7 according to the Likert scale.

Results:

The result showed that the ADHD tendency group showed higher Skin Conductance Level on the stress circumstances. They maintained the high level during rest phase. Also, the group showed higher subjective discomforted level.

Conclusions:

The research confirmed that stress administration and emotion regulations are needed to be included in goals for medication on ADHD groups.

Factors Influencing College Students’ Gambling and Drinking Problem
Seung Hee Yang
STRESS. 2017;25(4):306-316.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.306
  • 136 View
  • 1 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

The stress and coping of college students are reported to be closely related to gambling and drinking problems. Therefore, in this study was to examine the perceived stress, coping, gambling and drinking problem of college students, and to identify the correlations between variables and factors affecting gambling and drinking problems.

Methods:

The subjects were 220 college students in Northern Gyeonggi area and data was collected using self-reported questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0 program.

Results:

15.5% of college students group showed high risk of gambling. Among the male group, 50% of male showed normal drinking level, but 45.7% of male indicated dangerous drinking level, and rest 4.3% showed the alcoholic disorder. While the female group showed somewhat different result with the male group. Among them, 73.4% of female showed normal drinking, but 20% of female showed dangerous drinking problems and 6.3% of female had the alcoholic disorder problem. The common factors influencing college students’ gambling and drinking problems were high due to passive stress coping ways.

Conclusions:

College students’ gambling and drinking problems are closely related to stress coping. Therefore, it was found that the stress management program of college students is essential for the prevention and management of gambling problems and drinking problems of college students.

The Effects of the Motivation Management Program on Stress Response, Self-Efficacy and Subjective Well-Being among Female University Students with Academic and Career Stress
Ji-Hye Jang, Jung-Ho Kim, Mirihae Kim
STRESS. 2017;25(4):317-325.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2017.25.4.317
  • 143 View
  • 3 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background:

This study examined the effects of the Motivation Management Program on stress response (somatization, depression, and anger), self-efficacy and subjective well-being among female university students with academic and career stress.

Methods:

The participants were assigned to either a treatment group (N=12) or a control group (N=13). The Motivation Management Program treatment group was administered 6 sessions (80 minutes each, once a week).

Results:

The Stress Response, Somatization, Depression, Anger and Negative Affect scores in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group, while the Satisfaction with Life and Positive Affect scores in treatment group increased significantly in comparison with those in the control group. No significant pre-post differences were found between groups in Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction Expectancy scores.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest that the motivation management program can help female University students reduce the stress response (somatization, depression, and anger) and improve the subjective well-being.


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