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Volume 21(3); September 2013
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Original Articles
Effects of Sex Differences to Incidence Rate of Major Depressive Disorder
Ran Won
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):167-174.   Published online June 30, 2013
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The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is twice as common in women as in men. A lot of biological evidences are identified to clarify the gender specific background of MDD. This review examines some potentials factors contributing to the sex difference for incidence rate of MDD in terms of physiological and anatomical response. Although further researches have to be carried out and many problems to be resolved, these approaches suggest that gender specific differences have to be considered in drug development for MDD. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:167∼174)
Mediating Effect of Emotion Strength on the Relationship between Adolescents' Negative Emotional Experience and Impulsive Behavior: Comparison of Delinquent and Ordinary Adolescents
Jisun Park
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):175-182.   Published online June 30, 2013
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This study has been carried out in order to look into if emotional experience and affect intensity play important role for impulsive behavior of adolescents'. 560 juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents were asked to complete questionnaire on the negative emotional experience, affect intensity and impulsive behavior. Finally, responses from 485 adolescents were used for the analysis. First, the researcher has looked into if there is any difference on negative emotional experience, affect intensity and impulsive behavior between juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescent through t-test. As a result, juvenile delinquents showed more negative emotional experience and impulsive behaviors than the ordinary adolescents. Second, the researcher has tested if the negative emotional experience has effect on the impulsive behavior with the mediator of affect intensity using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The result showed that in case of the juvenile delinquents, the negative emotional experience had effect on the impulsive behavior with the mediator of affect intensity. However, in case of the ordinary adolescents, the affect intensity did not mediate the relation between negative emotional experience and impulsive behavior. To sum it up, the results suggest that as the emotional experience have important effect on the impulsive behavior of the maladjustment adolescents, emotional intervention is required for cure and prevention of juvenile delinquents' maladjustment behavior. On the basis of the results, this paper has proposed intervention method on the misconduct behaviors of the adolescents and discussed meaning and restriction of this study. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:175∼182)
Influence of Type D Personality and Stress on Incidence Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Male Bus Drivers
Eun-Young Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):183-191.   Published online June 30, 2013
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This study examined the influences of type D personality and stress on the incidence risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases (CVD) among male bus drivers. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaire among 202 bus drivers at three bus companies in J province. The 57.9% of the subjects showed type D personality and their stress score was a little higher than the average as mean 42.75±5.39. 13.4% were identified as a high risk group for CVD, and 12.4% were medium risk and 60.4% were low risk group. Logistic regressive analyses was conducted by dividing two groups, normal vs low risk, normal vsmidium/high risk. As stress score was higher, age was controlled for, possibilities to be a low risk group and midium/ high risk group were increased 1.23 and 1.15 times, respectively, compared to normal group. However, type D personality did not affect on the CVD risk. Emotional stress was found to be a predicting factor of increased risk of CVD. This study suggests that monitoring and management of stress at a regular basis is urgent for bus drivers, and further research is needed for the relationship between type D personality and CVD risk by expanding study sample. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:183∼191)
Social Adaptation of College Students from North Korea: A Case Study with Focus on Complex-PTSD
Sungho Hu*, Eunmi Park*, Junseong Park&#;, Taeyun Jung*
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):193-202.   Published online June 30, 2013
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The present study was designed to analyze social adaptation of 14 college students from North Korea by quantitative inquiry and qualitative inquiry. This was analyzed with a Simple-PTSD scale and a Complex-PTSD scale. That was analyzed with a two- or three-hour interview was conducted for each participant with regard to four topics such as experiences of campus life, experiences of interpersonal relation, coping with school difficulty, and meaning of campus life. First, the quantitative inquiry compared the differences of S-PTSD scores and C-PTSD scores. Second, the qualitative inquiry explained adaptative styles of 14 cases by C-PTSD scores and contents from a case study. According to the results, there were significant differences between S-PTSD and C-PTSD. And Analyses led participants into three types of school adaptation: the well-adapted, the unstable adaptive-process, and the unadaptive. Results also those participants who scored high on C-PTSD had negative attitudes in the relationship, the conflict solution, and the meaning of life. These findings were discussed in relation to social measures for their help in adaptation to South Korea. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:193∼202)
The Effects of Cellular Phone Addiction and Impulsive Behavior on School Adjustment of Adolescents
Hea Shoon Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):203-212.   Published online June 30, 2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adolescent's cellular phone addiction and impulsive behavior on the school adjustment. Data were collected from 566 adolescents and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe's test, Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression with the SPSS 18.0. The school adjustment correlates with the cellular phone addiction and impulsive behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed school record (high), compulsiveㆍwithdrawal behavior, motor impulsiveness, not pay phone bills experience (yes), use (game), number of the messages personal/day (31 above), and gender (female) explained 45.1% of the total variance in school adjustment. The results of this study identify a relationship between cellular phone addiction, impulsive behavior and school adjustment in adolescents. Therefore, programs for prompting adolescents's school adjustment should be a planned based on results of the study. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:203∼212)
Clinical Practicum Experiences of the Nursing Students' in Psychiatric Settings by Personality Types of Enneagram
Jeoung Weon Park*, Jung Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):213-227.   Published online June 30, 2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore and describe clinical practicum experiences of the nursing students' in psychiatric settings by personality types of enneagram. The qualitative data was gathered from 3 focus group discussions with 23 nursing students who experienced clinical practicum in psychiatric settings. Focus groups include 'instinct', 'feeling', and 'thinking' groups, according to personality types of enneagram. All interviews were recorded and transcribed according to thematic content analysis processes. The three main themes on clinical practicum experiences of participants were 'Emotions arising from the relationship with patients', 'Desire to become therapeutic oneself', 'The sense of pressure toward task.'Nine other themes were 'Anxious about unfamiliar situation', 'Tired and upset', 'Happy and full', 'Difficult to get closer to patients', 'Applying therapeutic commu-nication skills', 'Worrying position as a therapist', 'Softened prejudices about mental illness', 'Stress toward task', and 'Getting assistance'. The findings of the study illustrated in the participants' clinical practicum experiences, showed differences according to personality types of enneagram. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:213∼227)
Occupational Stress of Medical Administrative Employees in Regional Hospitals
Hye-Sook Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):229-238.   Published online June 30, 2013
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This study analyzes the characteristics and levels of occupational stress on 568 (male 174, 394 female) medical administrative employees in B city. The data were collected using a self-reporting questionnaire and analyzed by using th SPSS 20.0 (descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multiple regression). As a result, the sub-scale score of occupational stress on medical administrative employees corresponds to the generally low level as a whole (Q25∼49%), but the scales on job demands (Q50∼74%) and interpersonal conflict (male; Q50∼74, female; Q25∼49%) are at high levels. To create a healthy organizational environment for members of hospital organization, it is a benefit to review and adopt a systematic management and an effective improvement method of the causing factors of the occupational stress reflecting the outcome of the study. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:229∼238)
Difference of Testosterone Level according to Depression and Stress State
Jin Soo Park*, Yu Jeong Lee*, Yeon Ja Na*, Mihee Kong*,&#;, Hyeon Ju Kim*,&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):239-247.   Published online June 30, 2013
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The causes of decreasing in the male sex hormone (testosterone) are known to metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, drinking, smoking, drugs etc, as well as age. Depression and stress are reported to association with decreasing in testosterone levels, also. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of serum testosterone levels according to depression and stress state. The study was carried out in adult males more than 20 years old, who visited one health promotion center from April, 2009 to July, 2012. We evaluated the state of depression by surveying CES-D-K for males less than 65 years old, and by surveying GDSSF-K for males more than 65 years old, and also evaluated the state of stress by surveying BEPSI-K. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured by sampling venous blood in fasting state more than 8 hours in the morning. Then, we analyzed the serum testosterone levels according to depression and stress state. In the depression group or the high stress group, TT and FT were a little low, but were not differed significantly between each group. However, by the comparison of depression and high stress group (n=17) with non-depression and low stress group (n=254), TT and FT were both low in the depression and high stress group, and TT was differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.04 by Mann-Whitney test). By the comparison of depression and high stress group with non-depression and low stress group, TT was significantly low in the depression and high stress group. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:239∼247)
The Effects of Korean Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program on the Psychological Symptoms, Sleep and Quality of Life, in Korea Breast Cancer Patients
Kyung Park*, Jin-Soo Jun&#;, Sun Young Jung&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2013;21(3):249-262.   Published online June 30, 2013
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This study investigated the effects of K-MBSR in Korean breast cancer patients. research period was from the end of Feb. to 9th of Aug. in 2012. 20 breast cancer patients were participated in this program. 5 were assigned in non-treatment control group and 15 were assigned in experiment group. And 6 of experimental group who engaged in first experiment were participated in follow-up study. K-MBSR was implemented to experimental group for 4 hours for every week during 6 weeks. The control group did not have any treatment. The test instruments for pre-post experiment were RRS, PSQI, EROTC-BR23, SCL-90-R, FFMQ, K-CCQ, K-TPGI, Blood Pressure, and Salivary Test in this program. As the results of hypothesis pre-tests for homogeneity between experimental and control group, all the null hypothesis were accepted. However, after the 6 times K-MBSR treatments, several null hypothesis were denied, and research hypothesis were accepted such as Ruminative Response, Sleep Quality, physical symptoms of Quality of Life, Depression Hostility, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Anxiety. This means that experimental group patients experienced some reduction for the tested issues. Especially depression in pre-post of experiment group showed significant reduction. Especially depression in pre-post of experiment group was a significant reductions. Although the number of cases was small, these results implies that the K-MBSR can contribute reductions for the rumination, physical symptoms, Sleep Quality, and Quality of Life of the breast cancer patients in Korea. For the future research, large sample experiment is needed to make more confident result for K-MBSR. (Korean J Str Res 2013;21:249∼262)

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