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Volume 20(3); September 2012
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Original Articles
Determinants of Suicidal Ideation among Korean Youth
Hongjik Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):139-148.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of suicidal ideation among Korean youth. Specially, it tried to find out how personal traits, attachment characteristics, emotional factors and stress factors influence on their level of suicidal ideation. This study used the Korean Youth Panel Study (KYPS), which was collected by the Korea Institute for Youth Development (KIYD). It conducted a secondary data analysis of 2,887 cases. It conducted frequency analysis, t-test, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Although various independent variables influenced on their level of suicidal ideation, academic record, parents attachment, community attachment, emotion, parent stress, academic stress, friend stress, physical stress and economic stress were key determinants of their level of suicidal ideation in Korean Youth. Findings may be used for realizing the risk factors of suicidal ideation and developing new promising strategies to relieve the problems of suicidal ideation among Korean youth. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:139∼148)
Stress, Self-Esteem and School Adjustment according to Distinction of Sex for Early Adolescents
Ji Sook Kang, Eun Hee Hwang
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):149-157.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purposes of this study were to investigate relation about stress, self-esteem and school adjustment to distinction of sex for early adolescent. Subjects were 440 students studying in 4 middle schools where are located in I city of South Korea. Subjects agreed to participate in this study completed a self-report questionnaire from August, 2010 to September, 2010. The collected data was analyzed with PASW/WIN 18.0 program, which was used for frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients. Major findings of this study were as follows. 1) Mean of stress for girls was 2.98, mean of stress for boys was 2.86 and girls' stress was higher than boys'. Family related and Self related stress for girls were higher than for boys. 2) Mean of school resilience for girls was 77.33, mean of school resilience for boys was 79.73 and boys' school resilience was higer than girls'. 3) There were significant differences stress, self-esteem and school adjustment between girls and boys. Specially, girls' stress, self-esteen and school adjustment were related to more various aspects. The finding of this study gives useful information for stress, self-esteem and school adjustment of early adolescences. Then, it is need to develop school adjustment program considering sexual characteristics by understanding distinctive stress and self-esteem for early adolescents. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:149∼157)
The Validity Study of the Validation and Invalidation Scale (VIRS) among College Women with Dating Violence
Jungeun Lee*, Mikyung Lee&#;, Myoung-Ho Hyun&#;, Alan E. Fruzzetti*
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):159-167.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of the present study is to validate Validating and Invalidating Response Scale (VIRS, Lee et al., in progress) in Korea. College women (N=346) who have experienced an abusive relationship participated in this study and they completed the translated Validating and Invalidating Response Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale-II (CTS-II), the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory-S (PMWI-S), and Relationship Satisfaction Inventory (RSI). The result of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of K-VIRS suggested one factor structure. Data analysis showed: 1) high reliability of the VIRS (Cronbach's Ձ=.922); 2) appropriate levels of convergent validity, evidenced by moderate correlations with the CTS-II (r=−.457, p<.001), the PMWI-S (r=−.473, p<.001), and RSI (r=.537, p<.001). In addition, K-VIRS showed significant regression with the Korean version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (K-DERS, R2=.05, F (1,319)=17.31, p<.000) and RSI (R2=.29, F (1,313)=126.62, p<.000), indicating victims who have experienced dating violence experience difficulties regulating their emotions and low relationship satisfaction in the relationship. The treatment and research utility of using the construct of validation/invalidation with current and former victims individually and in couples will be discussed and further research establishing the incremental. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:159∼167)
Effect of Basil Essential Oil-Inhalation on Pain, Anxiety and Vital Sign in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain before Spine Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
Purum Kang*, Kum Mi Jung*, Sun Seek Min&#;, Geun Hee Seol*
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):169-178.   Published online September 30, 2012
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Ocimum basilicum L. (basil essential oil, BEO) is a plant used in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and hypertension. BEO-inhalation was used to examine the effects of the odor of BEO and BEO concentration dependency on pain and anxiety before spine surgery in patients with chronic low back pain. A total of sixty patients were randomly assigned to one of the four study groups (control, 0.1%, 1%, 5% BEO-inhalation group). Pain-visual analog scale (P-VAS), anxiety-visual analog scale (A-VAS), profile of mood states (POMS) test, blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and after inhalation of the odors for five minutes. Inhalation of BEO at 0.1%, 1% concentration caused significant decreases in P-VAS compared with control (p=.022, p=.022, respectively), meanwhile 5% BEO-inhalation significantly reduced in diastolic blood pressure compared with control (p=.023). However, there was no significant difference among the four groups in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, A-VAS, POMS test. In patients with chronic low back pain before spine surgery, 0.1% and 1% BEO-inhalation is effective in alleviating pain and 5% BEO-inhalation reduce diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, BEO-inhalation at specific concentrations can be useful method for the relief of pain and blood pressure control for patients with chronic low back pain before spine surgery. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:169∼178)
Influencing Factors of Psychosomatic and Psychological Symptoms of Stress in Korean Adults
Yang-Sook Hah*, Sunhee Cho&#;, Myungae Choe*, Keum-Soon Kim*, Myungsun Yi*, Soyeon Cho&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):179-186.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of somatic symptoms and psychological symptoms of stress among Korean adults. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted. A sample size of 815 male and 1,554 female adults residing in South Korea completed the instruments of perceived stress, symptoms of stress, and way of coping. Data was analyzed by multivariate regression. Influencing factors for eleven symptoms of stress were as follows: a) subjective health status, having disease, perceived stress level were significant influencing factors for all symptoms of stress; b) problem-focused coping was a significant influencing factor for psychological symptoms of stress; c) emotional-focused coping was significant influencing factor for both psychosomatic and psychological symptoms of stress; d) age, gender, subjective health status, having disease, and perceived stress level were significant influencing factors for psychosomatic symptoms of stress; e) emotion-focused coping predicted psychosomatic symptoms of stress. Feeling healthier and perceiving a lower stress level predicted more psychological symptoms of stress. In contrast, using more emotion-focused coping was significantly associated with more psychosomatic symptoms of stress. The findings suggest that community health providers need to develop interventions to aware coping strategies and to enforce problem-focused coping skills for community-dwelling Korean adults with psychosomatic complaints. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:179∼186)
Influencing Factors of Resilience of Adolescents according to Stress
Moonhee Gang*, Jong Sun Kwon&#;, Kyongok Oh*
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):187-198.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of study was to explore the resilience level of adolescents according to their stress and to identify influencing factors of resilience. A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. The participants for this study were 350 adolescents in Gyeonggi province. The instruments were the Resilience Scale, Social Support, Self-Esteem Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evalution Scale III, and Stress Scale. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, multiple regression with SPSS/win 15.0 program. Low-stress group showed higher scores of resilience (p<.001), social support (p<.001), family function (p=.002) and self-esteem (p<.001) than high-stress group and the difference was statistically siginificant. The influencing factors to resilience of adolescents in high-stress group is self-esteem, social support, family function, and number of respectable teachers and those of adolescents in low-stress group are self-esteem and family function. Findings of this study allow a comprehensive understanding of adolescent. It is necessary to develop nursing intervention program for improving resilience of adolescent by considering self-esteem, social support, parents education as well as stress. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:187∼198)
The Moderating Effect of Teachers' Stress Management in Relation to Work Environment with Job Engagement and Burnout Respectively
Bo Ram Kim, Young Sook Park
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):199-208.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental effects of teacher burnout and job engagement, and identify whether teachers' stress management plays a moderating role that affects burnout and job engagement. The subjects of the study were 178 teachers of 9 elementary schools teachers who work in Incheon. The results were summarized as follows; First, negative work environments effected burnout and job engagement. Teachers in negative work environments suffered from higher burnout rates, whereas those in positive work environments resulted in higher job engagement rates. Second, teachers with effective stress management strategies and those with aversive stress management strategies differed in burnout rates. Those that were able to effectively manage stressful situations had lower burnout rates. Also those with effective stress management strategies had higher levels of job engagement. Third, teachers with effective stress management strategies played a moderating role between work environment and burnout. It gives us the opportunity to think about the usefulness of effective stress management strategies, and the need for curriculum development for university level education programs or teachers' seminars in this area. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:199∼208)
Factors Influencing Job Stress of Health Care Providers
Kuem Sun Han*, Hee Su Lim&#;, Young Hee Park&#;, Mi Young Choi&#;, Sun Kyung Cha&#;, Eun Mi Lee&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):209-220.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The purpose of this study was to identify job stress, communication style, personality traits, social skill, and coping and to examine factors influencing job stress in clinical nurses and physicians. Data were collected by questionnaires from 353 health care providers at three general hospital. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 18.0 version. Job stress showed significant differences according to the sociodemographic characteristics of sex, education, current workplace and shift work. There were significant group differences in dysfunctional communication, agreeableness personality trait between nurses and physicians. Job Stress showed significantly positive correlations to dysfunctional communication, neuroticism personality trait and significantly negative correlations to agreeableness personality trait. The significant factors influencing job stress of the clinical nurses were agreeableness personality trait, and conscientiousness personality trait. The significant factors influencing job stress of the physicians were conscientiousness personality trait. The result of this study suggest that in developing nursing interventions to manage for job stress of clinical nurses and personality traits should be considered. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:209∼220)
Correlations of Psychiatric Symptoms and Positive Psychological Factors with Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in Patients of Panic Disorder
Dong-Hyun Nam, Jung-Ah Min, Jeong-Ho Chae
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):221-128.   Published online September 30, 2012
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The heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested as a possible biological marker for panic disorder. Given that clinical implications of positive psychological factors were reported in anxiety disorder, we investigated the correlations between HRV and psychiatric symptoms including depression or anxiety as well as positive psychological factors such as resilience, gratitude, hope in patients of panic disorder. A total of 36 patients who diagnosed as panic disorder according to DSM IV-TR were recruited. HRV data were collected using 5-minute electrocardiographic recording and time domain parameters were calculated. Self-report questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), The Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) and The State Hope Scale (SHS) were used to measure anxiety, depression, resilience, gratitude, and hope, respectively. To identify the relationship between HRV parameters and these psychological variables, correlation analysis was performed. The scores of State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) showed a significant negative correlation with SDNN (Standard deviation of the normal to normal interval) of HRV parameters. However, the scores of Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), depression (BDI), and positive psychological factors (resilience, gratitude, and hope) had no significant correlations with HRV parameters. The results of present study revealed that state anxiety was negatively correlated with the marker of heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder. These associations might suggest the relationship between anxiety and autonomic symptoms in panic disorder. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:221∼228)
The Effect of Meditation Camp of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction-Korean on Emotion in School Maladjusted Middle School Students
Byung-Soo Yoon
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(3):229-236.   Published online September 30, 2012
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This study examinated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction -Korean on school maladjusted middle school students' emotion in camp for three days. 15 students (8 boys, 7 girls) participated in this camp. The effect was identified in pre or post of camp with Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), Impulsive Scale (IS), and Children Depression Inventory (CDI). The data were analyzed in time (pre and post)×sex (boys and girls) ANOVA with SPSS 17.0. The scores of negative affect, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression were significantly decreased after the program. In depression score, there was significant interaction effect, the depression of girls was more decreased than boys' depression after the program. These results indicates that meditation program was effective for changing school maladjusted juveniles' negative emotion and it will contribute to help school maladjusted juveniles adjust to school life. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:229∼236)

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