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Volume 20(2); June 2012
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Original Articles
The Effect of Poverty on Grandparent-Grandchildren Family's Grandparents Parenting Stress
Mi-Hee Kang
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):69-77.   Published online June 30, 2012
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This study aims to investigate the relationship of poverty and parenting stress that affect to grandparents of grandparent-grandchildren families consistently increasing since IMF. For this, it was extracted characteristics, the degree of poverty, the level of parenting stress through survey of 180 grandparents of grandparent-grandchildren families and was performed frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, average comparisons. Three kinds of parenting stress as a heavy burden of the role, social stigma, child care issues that affect the relationship and differences between groups were compared. Through the comparison, it found out general characteristics of grandparents and grandchildren of grandparent-grandchildren families and was compared divided as poor group and not poor group. Based on the degree of poverty, grandparent-grandchildren family's parenting stress showed significant difference in the averages of heavy burden of the role and child care issues. But in social stigma there was almost no difference in parenting stress across groups and It signifies that this results were no meaningful statistically. Using these results, this report proposes the need for establishment and support for social welfare policy suitable at grandparents-grandchildren families. In addition, practical implications, limitations and the direction of future research noted. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:69∼77)
The Effect of Psychological Rehabilitation Program Based on Positive Psychology for the Workers with Occupational Injury
Seong Kyeon Lim*, Jong-Min Woo&#;,&#;, Jeong Ho Chae&#;, Arhum Ko*, Hee-Kyong Ryu*
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):79-85.   Published online June 30, 2012
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This study aims to assess the effect of psychological rehabilitation program for occupationally injured workers. The purpose of this program was to relieve their stress and to improve positive mental health. 196 patients with acute occupational injury, who were either visiting outpatient clinic or being admitted at hospitals, voluntarily participated in this four-week sessions consisted of positive psychology-based intervention program. We assessed the participants using Heart Rate Variability (HRV), self-reporting questionnaires consisting of injured workers psychological testing scale and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PGI). After completing the program, participants showed significantly lower stress symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, lack of social support, and higher scores on the autonomic nervous system balance and PGI. The results suggested structured psychological interventions based on positive psychology for occupationally injured workers is effective in their psychological rehabilitation. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:79∼85)
Gender-Specific Factors of Self-Concept in Korean Middle School Students
Jeongyee Bae*, So Young Shin&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):87-95.   Published online June 30, 2012
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This study investigated gender differences in the level of self-concept and identified predictors affecting self-concept in Korean middle school students. The sample of this study included 920 male and 968 female middle school students in Busan. Subjects completed self-report questionnaire during in-person study visits. Six 4-point Likert scales, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree), were used to measure self-concept and its seven related-factors. Scheffe's test, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. The degree of self-concept was higher in males than females. Age, economic status, education of parents, academic ranking, running away, invalid school absences, getting into fights, and suicidal attempts showed significant differences in both male and female self-concept. However, self-concept was not significantly different in terms of students' religion and sexual experience in both genders. Predictors of self-concept in both genders were family satisfaction, social support (peer and teacher), school adjustment, and school achievement. However, parental acceptance was significantly associated with female self-concept only. The findings of this study suggest the importance of learning gender-specific predictors affecting adolescent self-concept. Developing and implementing appropriate and effective gender-specific programs is critical to promote high self-concept for today's youth. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:87∼95)
Maternal Separation Impairs Memory Function through Suppressing Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Pups
Young-Woong Choi*, Hyung-Hwan Baik*, Dae-Young Kim&#;, Sun-Young Jung&#;, Tae-Woon Kim&#;, Jin-Hee Seo&#;, Yun-Hee Sung&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):97-103.   Published online June 30, 2012
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Maternal separation during the early postnatal period is a stressful state that can disturb postnatal brain development, which induces cognitive and behavioral impairment. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal separation on memory function in relation to synaptic plasticity in the brain of rat pups. On postnatal day 14, the rat pups were divided into one of two groups: the maternal care group and the maternal separation group (n=8 in each group). The rat pups in the maternal care group were housed with their respective mothers under standard conditions, while the rat pups in the maternal separation groups were separated from their dams and housed individually. The maternal separation started on postnatal day 15 and was continued for 10 consecutive days. To evaluate memory function of the rat pups, step-down avoidance task was performed. Expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its receptor tyrosine kinase (TrkB), and phosphorylated synapsin (p-synapsin) were determined by western blot analysis. In the present results, latency in the step-down avoidance task was decreased in the rat pups of the maternal separation group. Expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and p-synapsin in the hippocampus were decreased in the rat pups of the maternal separation group. These results suggest that maternal separation impaired memory function with suppressing BDNF, TrkB, and p-synapsin expressions in the hippocampus. Maternal separation-induced memory impairment in the rat pups can be ascribed to the decreased synaptic plasticity through suppression of p-synapsin expression in the hippocampus. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:97∼103)
The Relationship between Job Stress and Family Function of Police Officers
Hae Ran Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):105-111.   Published online June 30, 2012
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The purpose of this study was an descriptive research to investigate the relationship between job stress and family function of police officers. The subjects of this study were 60 police officers. The data were collected from structured questionnaire, and were collected from November, 2010. The results were summarized as follows; The mean score for job stress was 60.02 and family function was 12.02. Family function with subjects' general characteristics was related to marital status, monthly income. The relationship between job stress and family function revealed a negative significant correlation. Our results suggest that it is needed to educate management about job stress and prepare a plan for improving family function of the subject. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:105∼111)
The Effect of Ego States and Life Positions on Empathy in Nursing Students
Jee Young Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):113-122.   Published online June 30, 2012
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The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of ego states and life positions on empathy in nursing students. A descriptive survey study conducted visit-surveys with questionnaires and sampled 204 female nursing students in Daejeon, and Chungnam. Korean version of Ego-OKgram, Empathy scale was used. Data was analyzed by ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Stepwise multiple regression analysis using SPSS/WIN 18.0. The results of this study are following. Nursing Students' Ego-OKgram showed M-type pattern with peaked NP ego state and (I+U+)pattern with positive attitude toward self and others. The degree of empathy according to leading pattern of ego states were significantly different in NP and CP, FC, AC ego state. And the degree of empathy according to compounding life positions were significantly different in positive attitude toward others (I+U+, I−U+) and negative attitude toward others (I+U−, I−U−). In addition, the empathy level positively correlated with NP ego state, positive attitude toward self and others, and negatively correlated with negative attitude toward self and others. Multiple regression analysis showed NP ego state, positive attitude toward others (U+), negative attitude toward others (U−) significantly influenced empathy level. The findings suggest that nursing educators and health professionals, while understanding the students, developing and providing the empathy training program need to be aware of the ego states and life positions in nursing students. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:113∼122)
The Associated Factors on Suicidal Ideation in Alcohol Dependence Inpatients
Ji Won Lee, Yeung Kyeung Kim, Young Sun Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):123-132.   Published online June 30, 2012
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We investigated the relationship between craving to drink, abstinence self-efficacy, depression and suicidal ideation, and to identify factors for suicidal ideation in alcohol dependence inpatients. The sample was 146 patients from a alcoholic hospital in suburban area and who agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected by staff nurses involved in direct patient care with the participants from May 1, to 15, 2010, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hierarchic multiple linear regression with the SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. The mean score for the OCDS, AASES, CES-D, SSI were 2.45±0.77, 3.16±0.86, 2.61±0.45, 2.28±0.77 respectively. There were significant correlations between the OCDS and SSI (r=.37, r<.001), AASES and SSI (r=−.26, r<.001), CES-D and SSI (r=.22, r=.006). Craving to drink and abstinence self-efficacy accounted for 18.1% of variance in suicidal ideation. The results of this study indicates that alcohol dependence inpatients' suicidal ideation is related to craving to drink, abstinence self-efficacy, depression and that there is a need to develop programs which focus on craving to drink, abstinence self-efficacy, depression management. OCDS=Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, AASES=Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale, CES-D=The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, SSI=Scale for Suicide Ideation. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:123∼132)
Association between Promoter Polymorphism (rs2243115, −570 T/G) of Interleukin 12A and Dyslipidemia and Obesity in Korean Population
Seung-Ae Yang
Korean J Str Res. 2012;20(2):133-138.   Published online June 30, 2012
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Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a key modulator of the immune function and is composed of IL12A and IL12B. To investigate the association between IL12A polymorphism and dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity in Korean population, a total of 263 subjects were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2243115, −570 T/G) in the promoter region of the IL12A gene was selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. SNPStats and SPSS 18.0 were used to obtain the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and p value. Multiple logistic regression models were performed for the analysis of genetic data. The rs2243115 SNP was associated with the triglyceride levels (p=0.040 in the codominant2 model and p=0.042 in the recessive model), HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.003 in the codominant1 model, p=0.0017 in the dominant model, p=0.0018 in the log-additive model, and p=0.009 in allele frequencies), and overweigh/obesity (p=0.032 in the codominant1 model, p=0.017 in the dominant model, p=0.013 in the log-additive model, and p=0.019 in allele frequencies). These results suggest that IL12A promoter SNP (rs2243115, −570 T/G) may be associated with dyslipidemia and obesity in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:133∼138)

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