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Volume 19(3); September 2011
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Original Articles
The Effects of Meditation Facilitator's Experiences on Meditation Durability and Emotional States
Jae-Hong Bae*, Soon Kwon Park&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):195-204.   Published online September 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was examined the effects of meditation facilitator's experience on meditation durability and Emotional states. The measurement scale for this study was BDI, BAI and, PANAS and the participants were 67 college students. This scale was measured before-after session of the K-MBSR Program. Three Facilitator's Group of the K-MBSR program were compared: a Professionals's Group (A group), a Technicians and Associate Professionals's Group (B group) and a beginning Professionals's Group (C group). The results of this study were as follows. First, there was significant group difference in the completion rate according to the facilitator (A group>C group). Second, there was significant difference in size of the effects on anxiety (A group>C group>B group) and depression (A group>C group>B group). Third, negative affection was significantly decreased only in A Group. The role of mindfulness training and experience was discussed as Mindfulness Meditation Facilitator variables with counselor variable in counseling. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:195∼204)
Swimming Alleviates Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Memory Impairment by Enhancing of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Hippocampus of Rats
Bo-Kyun Kim*, Yun-Hee Sung*, Sung-Eun Kim*, Moon-Hyoung Lee*, Yong-Min Kim*, Mal-Soon Shin*, Il-Gyu Ko&#;, Baek-Vin Lim&#;, Sam-Jun Lee&#;, Chang-Ju Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):205-212.   Published online September 30, 2011
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to induce many neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of swimming on the memory function and expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus, following TBI in rats. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group): sham-operation group, TBI-induction group, and TBI-induction and swimming group. TBI was induced by an electromagnetic-controlled cortical impact. The animals in the swimming group were forced to swim for 30 min once daily, for ten consecutive days. TBI deteriorated memory function and suppressed expressions of both BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus. Swimming alleviated TBI-induced memory impairment and also enhanced expressions of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus. In the present results, TBI elicited memory disturbance and swimming overcame the TBI-induced memory impairment through suppression on BDNF level in the hippocampus, thus facilitated recovery after brain injury. Herein, we suggest that swimming may be used as the useful strategy for the functional recovery of the brain following brain damage. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:205∼212)
The Effect of Stress Experiences on Abnormal Eating Behavior of Female High School Students
Gwiyeoroo Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):213-220.   Published online September 30, 2011
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The primary purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between female high school students' diet behavior and stress experiences that affect abnormal eating behavior. Participants were 278 female high school students of Kyeonggi Province. 51.5% participants answered that they were on diet. Even among those who were below average weight (Body Mass Index below 18.5), 25.4% participants were on diet. Correlation analyses showed statistically significant relationship between stress experiences and abnormal eating behaviors. Among sub-types of stress experiences, individual, school-related and socio-economic stress were significantly correlated to spare eating and bulimia. But family-related stress had no significant relationship with spare eating. Multifulregression showed that stess could explain just 9% of spare eating. But in case of bulimia, stress experiences explain 15% of bulimia. In considering so many variables related to abnormal eating behavior, stress experiences affect significantly to abnormal eating behavior. The findings by this study demonstrate stress experiences closely related to abnormal eating behavior. In the future we should articulate female high school students' stress experiences on the result of this study. Moreover future research should include behavioral index as a dependent variable. The discussion addressed implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:213∼220)
Cyberspace Experience of Internet Game among Early Adolescents
Jee Young Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):221-229.   Published online September 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was to understand and explore the cyberspace experience of internet game among early adolescents. A phenomenological research method guided data collection and analysis. Study participants included 6 elementary and middle school students who had experienced cyberspace of internet game. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Coding was used to establish different concepts and categories. The results of this study are following. These common constituents were found: expectation for emotional need; recognition of available playground; satisfaction from achievement in the virtual space; vicarious satisfaction to impossibility in the real space; attachment with cyber-self; connected tele-presence to virtual reality; and the craving for staying on the cyberspace. The structure of cyberspace experience of internet game was derived from the 7 constituents. Expectation for emotional need was identified as a cause in the psychological dimension. And the craving for staying on the cyberspace was identified as a result in the behavioral dimension. This relationship of cause and result moved in a cycle through the medium of recognition about the cyberspace as a available playground. Furthermore, satisfaction from achievement, vicarious satisfaction to impossibility, attachment with cyber-self, connected tele-presence to virtual reality facilitated the craving for staying on the cyberspace. The results of this study may enlarge the knowledge about the cyberspace experience of internet game and contribute to health professionals to understand early adolescents with cyberspace experience of internet game. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:221∼229)
Effects of Stress and Psychological Symptoms on Heart Rate Variability
Sang-Hun Hong*, Mihee Kong*,&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):231-236.   Published online September 30, 2011
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We investigated the differences in the activity of the autonomic nervous system according to the degree of stress and the presence or absence of following neuropsychiatric symptoms-anxiety, depression, and insomnia, using heart rate variation (HRV) that represents autonomic nervous function in a non-invasive way. Of all adult men who underwent health exam from April 9, 2009 to May 4, 2010, 192 subjects without certain illnesses including arrhythmia were recruited for this study. They were tested for HRV and asked to fill in a questionnaire for the degree of stress and the neuropsychiatric symptoms. The degree of stress fell into three categories, and the neuropsychiatric symptoms were grouped into anxious, depressive, and insomnia group according to the mark checked on the questionnaire form for "feeling anxious for no apparent reason", "always feeling depressed", and "difficulty sleeping", respectively. Comparison among groups was made for the differences in SDNN, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio-components of HRV. After adjusting for age, it shows that there was no meaningful differences in HRV among three groups defined by the degree of stress and also among the groups by the neuropsychiatric status except for the significant increase of LF (p=0.028) in the depressive group. Compared to the normal group, the insomnia one presented significant elevations of LF and LF/HF ratio (p=0.018, p=0.050). In conclusion, neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression and insomnia seem to be associated with the activation of sympathetic nervous system measured by HRV. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:231∼236)
A Promoter Polymorphism (rs3737965, -336 C/T) of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Is Associated with Obesity in Korean Population
Young-Ock Kim, Seung-Yu Kim, Sang-Won Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):237-242.   Published online September 30, 2011
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a major enzyme in the metabolism of folate. Several studies have shown the relationship between the MTHFR gene and obesity. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MTHFR gene were associated with obesity in Korean population. One hundred twenty two overweight/obese and 125 control subjects were recruited. Two SNPs (rs3737965, -336 C/T and rs1801131, Glu429Ala) of the MTHFR gene were selected, and genotypes of these two SNPs were determined using direct sequencing. SNPStats, SPSS 18.0, and Haploview 4.2 softwares were used to analyze genetic data. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant1, codominant2, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive) were conducted for odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and p value. For the defined results, p values were recalculated by Bonferroni correction (pc). After Bonferroni correction, allele distributions of one promoter SNP (rs3737965) showed significant association with overweight/obese (OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.14∼4.51, pc=0.038). The T allele frequency of rs3737965 in the overweight/obese group (11.1%) was higher than that in the control group (5.2%). These results indicate that the MTHFR gene may be associated with obesity in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:237∼242)
Various Types of Stress Deteriorate Spatial Memory through Inhibition of Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Rats
Jee-Sang Yoon*, Hyung-Hwan Baik*, Su-Shin Lee&#;, Yu-Mi Heo&#;, Bo-Kyun Kim&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Sang-Won Lee&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):243-251.   Published online September 30, 2011
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Stress is defined as physical, physiological, and psychological modifications that disrupt the homeostasis and internal balance of the body. Stress is closely associated with neuronal changes such as impaired neurogenesis, neuronal atrophy, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various types of stress (restraint stress, noise stress, cold stress) on spatial memory, cell proliferation, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus of rats. The rats in the restraint stress group were restrained in a transparent cylinder. The rats in the noise stress group were exposed to a 120 dB supersonic machine sound. The rats in the cold stress group were exposed to a cold chamber at 4oC. The rats in the control group were left undisturbed. Application of each stress was conducted for 60 min 2 times a day, and continued for 10 days. In the present results, all three types of stress induced spatial memory impairment. All three types of stress suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus. The strength of the deteriorating and suppressing effects of stresses had the following rank order: restraint stress>noise stress>cold stress. Thus, impairment of spatial memory by stresses may be due to the inhibition of cell proliferation through suppressing BDNF expression in the hippocampus. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:243∼251)
Mediating Effect of Emotion Regulation in the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Mental Health of Nursing Student
Hee Moon*, Mi Ja Chung*, Jiyoung Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):253-260.   Published online September 30, 2011
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This study was done to examine the association among self-esteem and emotion regulation, and explored the mediation effects of emotion regulation in the between self-esteem and mental health of nursing students. A cross sectional study design was done. Nursing students study subjects 3 and 4 year 182 undergraduates students. Base measurement tools measure the Rosenberg's self-esteem, mental health test, NMR (negative mood regulation), and a structured questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS Win 17.0 Program. Participants was slightly higher degree of self-esteem, mental health, the level was moderate. A slightly higher degree of emotion regulation were examined. Self-esteem were positively correlated with emotion regulation (r=.726, p<.001), and was negatively correlated with emotion regulation (r=−.639, p<.001) and mental health problems (r=−.572, p<.001). Emotion regulation was acted as a mediator in the between self-esteem and mental health problems. Therefore, prevention of mental health problems of nursing students and to promote mental health with an emphasis on the emotion regulation to apply to the development of interventions will be effective. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:253∼260)
Assessment of Genotype Frequencies of Thirteen Polymorphisms in Y Chromosome
Su Kang Kim*, Jong Yoon Lee&#;, Joo-Ho Chung*
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(3):261-266.   Published online September 30, 2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype frequencies of thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight Y chromosome genes, including ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 1 (RPS4Y1), transducin (beta)-like 1 (TBL1Y), Y-linked ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked (USP9Y), ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene, Y-linked (UTY), neuroligin 4, Y-linked (NLGN4Y), chromosome Y open reading frame 15A (CYorf15A), lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, Y-linked (EIF1AY). A total of 284 healthy male individuals were recruited in the present study. Polymorphisms of Y chromosome genes were genotyped using direct sequencing. Minor homozygote distributions of rs2075640 (0.174) in RPS4Y1, rs7067496 (0.181) in USP9Y, rs2032666 (0.145) in UTY, rs38633116 (0.237) in NLGN4Y, and rs3900 (0.184) in CYorf15A were above 0.100. Minor homozygote distributions of rs2299942 (0.011) in RPS4Y1, rs2072422 (0.039) in UTY, rs2032621 (0.035) in KDM5D, and rs17323322 (0.089) in EIF1AY were below 0.100. Rs9783225 and rs34555473 in TBL1Y, rs20319 in USP9Y, and rs34289137 in CYorf15A showed monomorphic genotype. This is the first report with population data on genotype frequencies of rs2299942, rs97856225, rs34555473, rs20319, rs7067496, and rs34289137. In conclusion, our data could be helpful on the molecular and genetic studies of Y chromosome. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:261∼266)

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