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Volume 19(2); June 2011
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Original Articles
Treadmill Exercise Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-induced Apoptotic Neuronal Cell Death in the Hippocampus of the Young and Old Rats
Il-Gyu Ko*, Sung-Eun Kim&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;, Sam-Jun Lee&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):97-106.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Systemic inflammation exerts detrimental effects on the various organs, especially on the central nervous system (CNS), and leading to multiple organ failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a lipid-containing polysaccharide which is endotoxin and acts as important group-specific antigen. LPS induces immune activation, causes inflammation, and results in deterioration of cellular function. Hippocampal neurons are particularly susceptible to this LPS. Treadmill exercise is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by various brain insults. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term and spatial memories in relation with apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following LPS-induced systemic inflammation. For the evaluation of age-dependent effect of treadmill exercise on these parameters, we used both young-aged and old-aged rats. In the present results, aging process impaired short-term and spatial memories through increase of apoptosis in the hippocampus. Treadmill exercise alleviated aging-induced impairment of short-term and spatial memories and suppressed aging-induced apoptosis in the old-aged rats. LPS-induced systemic inflammation disturbed short-term and spatial memories with increased apoptosis in both young-aged and old-aged rats. Treadmill exercise alleviated LPS-induced impairment of short-term and spatial memories and suppressed LPS-induced apoptosis in both young-aged and old-aged rats. Here in this study, we showed that treadmill exercise may inhibit LPS-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery of memory function following systemic inflammation. Concerning that aging process disturbs memory function by enhancing of apoptotic neuronal cell death, these effects of treadmill exercise may be more important in the elderly. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:97∼105)
Effects of Repetitive Restraint Stress on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Learning Abilities in Rats
Jin Hoon Lee*, Jun Ho Lee*, Keun Han Choi*, Won Jung Kim&#;, Su Jean Lee&#;, Ji Hye Jung&#;, Sung Keun Moon&#;, Kyu Yong Jung&#;, Bong Kyu Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):107-114.   Published online June 30, 2011
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The environmental stress may produce to behavioral changes. In this study using a rodent stress model that exposure to the repetitive restraint stress elicits behavioral alterations, especially changes the patterns of the innate behavior but not the contextual memory and learning abilities. Nine weeks old Sprague-Dawley male rats were given the restraint stress (the stressed group) for 6 hours per day for seven consecutive days. The stressed rats were indicated the retarded development within the stressed-session compared to the control group. After the exposure to restraint stress for seven days, the rats' brains were performed to the NADPH-diaphorase stain on the limbic region of the brain. In the stressed animals have increased the counts of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) active neurons in the central amygdala of the brain. For behavioral assessments, animals were subjected to the exposure to novel environment-open-field apparatus-in order to examining the exploratory behaviors especially the ambulatory activity after the stress paradigm. The stressed animals indicated a significantly higher ambulatory activity for 5 min compare to the control animals. Moreover, the zone analysis of the tracking of exploration in open-field monitoring system, the stressed rats were a significantly decreased their activities in the center of arena compared to the control rats. However, the stressed rats were repetitively exposed to the same arena at once per day for 3 consecutive days, which ambulatory activity did attenuate to the control levels 3 days after exploration. These results suggested that the increase of counts of the nNOS reactive neurons in the central amygdala area due to the experience of repetitive stress paradigm can alter the eliciting pattern of the innate behavior and which has not been modulate the contextual learning and memory functions of the brain. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:107∼114)
Factors Associated with Parenting Stress of Mothers of School-aged Children with Atopic Dermatitis
Dong Hee Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):115-122.   Published online June 30, 2011
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The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with parenting stress of mothers of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis. Data were collected form 102 mothers of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis. Parenting stress was measured with PSI (Parenting Stress Index) and behavioral problems were measured with K-CBCL (Korean Child Behavior Checklist). Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used. There was a significant relationship between parenting stress and mother's education level (r=.319, p<.05), internalizing (r=.284, p<.05) and externalizing (r=.251, p<.05) problems. There was a significant relationship between parent domain for mother's education level (r=.280, p<.05) and internalizing problems (r=.291, p<.05), parent-child domain for mother's education level (r=.327, p<.05), school achievement (r=−.356, p<.05), severity of disease (r=.275, p<.05), and externalizing problems (r=.253, p<.05), and child domain for economic status (r=−.252, p<.05), internalizing (r=.278, p<.05) and externalizing (r=.265, p<.05) problems. The result of multiple regression analysis showed that parenting stress significantly associated with mother's education level (Ղ=0.466, p=.002), child's internalizing (Ղ=0.415, p=.006) and externalizing (Ղ=0.400, p=.012) problems. It is important to understand parenting stress of mother of children with atopic dermatitis and develop nursing interventions for them. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:115∼121)
The Need for Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) among Health and Human Resources Administrators in Korea
Seong Kyeon Lim*, Jong-Min Woo&#;,&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):123-128.   Published online June 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of companies which either already provided Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) or had plans to introduce such services at workplace, and to find out any obstacle in implementing EAPs services. Data were obtained from middle managers of Human Resources or Health and Safety department in 55 manufacturing companies. Participating companies have provided a lot of personal counseling and training for stress management, and implemented projects to improve interpersonal relations. Many companies are willing to introduce EAPs, however, various obstacles, such as lack of resources and lack of awareness among decision makers, prohibit them from introducing EAPs. In general, more and more workers are seeking social services including EAPs and companies came to recognize the need of EAPs. Proactive investment of both human resources and material resources and various promotional activities including social marketing are needed to develop EAPs in Korea. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:123∼128)
The Relationship between Job Stresses, Ego-Resilience, Job Satisfaction and Service Quality of Rehabilitation Teachers in Residential Facilities for Disabled People
Youn Kyu Lee*, Kyung-Hyun Suh&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):129-136.   Published online June 30, 2011
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This study investigated the relationship between job stresses, ego-resilience, job satisfaction, and service quality of rehabilitation teachers. The participants were 269 rehabilitation teachers who were employed in residential facilities for disabled people, whose ages ranged from 20 to 58. The psychological tests used in this research included the following: Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, ego resilience items from CPI, Job Description Index, and SERVQUAL scale. Results indicated that job stresses of rehabilitation teachers were negatively correlated to job satisfaction and service quality, whereas ego-resilience were positively correlated to. Job stresses of rehabilitation teachers accounted approximately 28.2% variance of job satisfaction and only 3.0% variance of service quality. Ego-resilience showed additional accountability for job satisfaction and service quality with job stresses. But there were no significant interaction effects of job stresses or ego-resilience on job satisfaction and service quality. In multiple regression analysis, job stresses, ego-resilience, and job satisfaction accounted for approximately 19% variance of service quality, and job satisfaction was only significant predictor for service quality. It was discussed the role of job stresses and ego-resilience in job satisfaction and quality of service among rehabilitation teachers with previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:129∼136)
The Influence of Self Differentiation and Coresidence with Unmarried Adult-child on Parent's Mental Health
Youngboon Lee*, Sungjae Kim&#;, Yongwoo Lee*, Heejung Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):137-146.   Published online June 30, 2011
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This study aims to investigate the influence of self differentiation and coresidence with unmarried adult-child on parent's mental health. A total of 406 parents (193 parents who coreside with unmarried adult-child and 213 parents who do not) completed the questionnaire. Self differentiation, coresidence with unmarried adult-child, family relationship, and parent's perceived stress and mental health were included in the hypothetical path model, and this model was tested using AMOS version 19.0. The goodness fit of the model was acceptable with various indices (GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.99, RMSEA<0.01, NFI=0.99). Self differentiation was found to have a significant direct effect on coresidence with unmarried adult-child and family relationship, although it only affected parent's perceived stress and mental health indirectly. It was identified that the family relationship could be a significant factor connecting self differentiation and parent's mental health. However, contrary to previous studies, coresidence did not have any influence on family, parent's stress and mental health. No effect of coresidence on parent's psychological aspect might be due to Korean culture which is common for parent to live with unmarried adult-child. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:137∼145)
The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Stress Coping Method of Office Workers in Honam Area
Hye Suk Kim*, Eun Young Choi&#;, Seong Min Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):147-154.   Published online June 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was an descriptive research to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and stress coping method of office workers, and to offer basic data that may used to find an alternative of reducing their stress. Subjects, 301 office workers, were selected through convenience sampling method from office in Chonbuk and Chonnam province from January to February, 2011. Data were collected through the structured questionnaires that include general characteristics, occupational stress scale, and stress coping method scale, and they were analyzed by Cronbach'alpha, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient by using SPSS/PC+ program. The mean score for occupational stress was 2.33 and stress coping method was 2.48. Occupational stress with subjects' general characteristics was related to sex, age, education, and marital status. The relationship between occupational stress and problem-oriented methods revealed a positive significant correlation (r=.253, p<.000). The relationship between occupational stress and pursuit of social support revealed a positive significant correlation (r=.191, p<.000). Based on the results, developing a stress counseling program and effective coping program for office workers is imperative, especially for those who show passive attitude toward stress and solve it emotionally instead of using problem-oriented methods. The implications of this study included that stress control program, the best way of influencing stress reduction, should be developed and provided for them to prevent stress and to manage inevitable stress. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:147∼154)
Association between Polymorphisms of Leptin Receptor and Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, and Obesity in Korean Population
Jae Young Kim*, Hwang Bin Lee*, Sung Hoon Lim*, Byoung Wook Lee&#;, Hyung Hwan Baik&#;, Young Ock Kim&#;, Hun-Kuk Park*, Joo-Ho Chung*
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):155-164.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Leptin is an adipocyte-specific hormone that regulates body weight. Leptin receptor (LEPR) is a receptor for leptin and plays a crucial role in the regulation of fat metabolism. To test the relationship between LEPR polymorphisms and dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity in Korean population, we analyzed 263 subjects. Three missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1137100, Lys109Arg, K109R; rs1137101, Gln223Arg, Q223R; rs8179183, Lys656Asn, K656N) in the coding region of the LEPR gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer Pro, and HelixTree programs were performed to obtain odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and p value. Haploview version 4.2 was used to determine the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and haplotypes among three SNPs. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted to analyze of genetic data. Two missense SNPs were associated with the HDL-cholesterol levels (rs1137101, p=0.024 in codominant1 model, p=0.039 in dominant model, p=0.011 in overdominant model; rs8179183, p=0.028 in dominant model, p=0.035 in overdominant model, p=0.026 in log-additive model, p=0.042 in allele frequencies). Two missense SNPs were also associated with hypertension (rs1137100, p=0.044 in allele frequencies; rs1137101, p=0.010 in codominant1 model, p=0.012 in dominant model, p=0.013 in overdominant model, p=0.019 in log-additive model, p=0.014 in allele frequencies). One missense SNP was related to the development of overweight/obese (rs1137101, p=0.027 in codominant1 model, p=0.015 in dominant model, p=0.029 in overdominant model, p=0.013 in log-additive model, p=0.014 in allele frequencies). These results suggest that LEPR polymorphisms may be associated with hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:155∼163)
Moderating Effects of Psychological Resilience of the Survivors of Breast Cancer Patients on the Influential Relationships among the Variables of Body Change Stress, Depression, and Social Adjustment
Kyung-Moon Chang
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):165-174.   Published online June 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study is two-folds. One is to investigate if the individual's psychological resilience and the degree of breast damage interactively influence on the breast cancer patients' body change stress, depression, and social adjustment. The other is to study if psychological resilience of the survivors of breast cancer moderates among the variables of their body change stress, depression, and social adjustment. Total of 190 breast cancer patients (95 full resection & 95 partial resection) who had completed their primary cancer treatments participated in this study. Results of the study are following: First, psychological resilience and the degree of breast damage of the survivors of breast cancer were interactively influence on their depression and social adjustment, but not on their body change stress. Second, the moderating effects of psychological resilience on the influential relationship between body change stress and social adjustment, but not on that between body change stress and depression was significant in both groups of full and partial resection. Third, the moderating effect of psychological resilience on the influential relationship between depression and social adjustment were significant only in the full resection group. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:165∼174)
Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Memory Impairment in the Diabetic Rats
Sun-Young Jung*, Jin-Hee Seo*, Yun-Hee Sung*, Chang-Ju Kim*, Dong-Je Kim&#;, Dae-Young Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):175-182.   Published online June 30, 2011
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder, and this disease is associated with degeneration and functional disorder of the nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory, cell proliferation, and expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the hippocampus of the diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into four groups (n= 8 in each group): control group, exercise group, DM-induction group, DM-induction and exercise group. DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg dissolved in 0.05 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5). The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min, five times a week for 6 weeks. For this study, step-down avoidance task, immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and western blot for BDNF and IGF-1 were performed. The present results showed that latency in the step-down avoidance task was decreased in the diabetic rats whereas treadmill exercise increased latency in the diabetic rats. Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was decreased in the diabetic rats, however treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation in the diabetic rats. The expressions of BDNF and IGF-1 protein in the hippocampus were decreased in the diabetic rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise increased the expressions of BDNF and IGF-1 in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that treadmill exercise may ameliorate DM-induced memory impairment by increasing cell proliferation through enhancing BDNF and IGF-1 expressions in the hippocampus. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:175∼182)
Determinants of Acculturative Stress among the Chinese Students in Korea: Focusing on Socioeconomic Characteristics, Language Skills and Social Support
Hongjik Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(2):183-194.   Published online June 30, 2011
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This study aimed to explore the determinants of acculturative stress among the chinese students in Korea. Especially, it aimed to explore how the socioeconomic characteristics of the chinese students and the language skills and social support they had affected their level of acculturative stress. The subjects of this study were 202 chinese students who were attending 5 colleges in the Seoul-Gyeonggi metropolitan area. The levels of acculturative stress was measured by the 7 sub-factors item questionnaire of perceived discrimination, homesickness, perceived hate, fear, stress due to change/cultural shock, guilt, and nonspecific factors. Also, socioeconomic characteristics, korean language skills and social support factors were introduced as predictors of acculturative stress. This study conducted descriptive statistics analyses and multiple regression analyses to explore the determinants of acculturative stress among the chinese students in Korea. Although acculturative stress of the chinese students were varied significantly according to various socioeconomic characteristics and social support factors, only social support factors, such as frequency of meeting, professors' support, fellow chinese friends' support, family members' support and economic/instrumental support and emotional/evaluation support, were still remained as statistically significant predictors to the acculturative stress in the total model. The result of this study showed us that chinese students who had meeting with others more frequently, had more supports from professors, chinese friends, and family members, and had more economic/instrumental and emotional/evaluative supports enjoyed lower level of acculturative stress than their counterparts. Therefore, more policy and program considerations should be took for chinese students to utilize their social supports in order to relive their acculturative stress in Korea. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:183∼194)

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