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Volume 19(1); March 2011
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Original Articles
Effects of Self-Consciousness and Communication Apprehension on Interpersonal Communication Competence of Nursing Students
Jeoung Weon Park&#;, Geun Myun Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):1-10.   Published online March 30, 2011
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This study was examined how self-consciousness and communication apprehension related to interpersonal communication competence of nursing students. The subjects were 623 nursing students. The data collection conducted from Oct 5 to Dec 15, 2009. The psychological tests used in this research included the following; self-consciousness scale, personal report communication apprehension, interpersonal communication inventory. The major findings of this study were follows: 1) Public self consciousness and social anxiety were positively correlated with communication apprehension. 2) Communication apprehension was negatively correlated with interpersonal communication competence. 3) Significant factors influencing interpersonal communication competence were social anxiety, public self consciousness and communication apprehension. The results of the study have implications for nursing pointing out relieving communication apprehension of nursing students and effective communication education programs to develop nurse-client therapeutic relationship. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:1∼10)
Development of Stress Index That Considers both Survey and Physiological Measurement
Chong Sun Lee*, Byung Kang Park&#;, In Wook Chung&#;, Sung Il Yi&#;, Byung Rok So&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):11-20.   Published online March 30, 2011
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In order to identify personal stress, we developed a stress index calculated by combining scores from survey and measurement. Stress survey utilized 20 questions related to physical, behavior, and psychology/emotion chosen from existing stress surveys being used in the hospital or public health center. Stress measurement score was estimated by developing a method of scoring by using the integrated values of the low frequency and high frequency components of Fourier spectrum of the hearth rate variability (HRV). A clinical trial was conducted in a general hospital to evaluate validity of the developed stress index. The stress index showed a good correlation with the existing stress survey score available in the public health center. The stress survey score showed very large variations among individuals with little correlation with age. However, the stress measurement score decreased with a large slope with age, and the age correlation coefficient was high. Therefore, we were able to observe that as age progresses, stress is accumulated and the autonomic nerve activity weakens resulting in the decrease in the stress resistance. The stress measurement score calculated in this study showed a high correlation coefficient of 0.868 with the stress index provided by Canopy7 of IEMBIO. Therefore, the stress index calculated from the employed equipment indicates stress resistance related to the autonomic nerve activity, and therefore it is distinguished from the stress index developed in this study calculated by reflecting both the current stress state through the survey and the stress resistance through the HRV measurement. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:11∼19)
Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Machiavellianism Personality Scale (K-MPS)
Hee-Song Kim*, Hyoen-Gi Hong*, Myoung-Ho Hyun&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):21-30.   Published online March 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean Version of the Machiavellianism Personality Scale (MPS). 339 participations (University students) were asked to complete the K-MPS, Psychopathy Personality Scale, Narcissism Personality Scale, Self-Monitoring Scale. The result of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of K-MPS suggested 4 factor structures (Distrust of Other, Amorality Manipulation, Desire for Status, Desire for Control). The result of Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of K-MPS show that Hierarchical Factor Structure fitted better than Four Factor Structure, indicating that both MPS and K-MPS were possessed of same factor structures. K-MPS showed a relatively strong positively correlation with Narcissism, Primary Psychopathy, but a relatively weak correlation with Secondary Psychopathy, Self-Monitoring. This result showed K-MPS had high convergence and discriminative validity. Finally, limitations of this study were discussed in relation with future studied. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:21∼30)
Life-stress and Happiness between Protestants and Non-believers in Middle-age: The Moderating Effects of Optimism, Self-regulation, and Religiosity
Junseong Park, Taeyun Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):31-38.   Published online March 30, 2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of optimism, self-regulation, and religiosity to life-stress on happiness between Protestants and non-believers in middle-age. Total of 233 participants - 148 Protestants and 85 non-believers - were asked to complete a questionnaire of life-stress, optimism, self-regulation, religiosity, and happiness. Analyzed the differences of the indicators between two groups, in first result, indicated that Protestants had more life-stress, optimism, religiosity, and happiness than non-believers significantly. But there was no difference in self-regulation. Second result indicated the happiness of either Protestants or non-believers explained negatively by life-stress. On the other hand, happiness was explained positively by optimism, self-regulation, and religiosity of Protestants played a moderating role. But in non-believers, show by optimism played a moderating role. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to relevant result, and their implications for happiness on middle-age and limitations of the present study were suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:31∼38)
Factors Influencing Suicidal Ideation among Technical High School Students
Young Hee Kim*, Young Sun Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):39-48.   Published online March 30, 2011
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We investigated the relationship between depression, stress, and suicidal ideation to identify factors for suicidal ideation among technical high school students. The sample was 272 students from a technical high school in Busan, Korea who had agreed to participate in the study. Data was collected by health teachers involved in direct student care of the participants from March 20, to April 10, 2010 and was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. Suicide ideation showed a significant positive correlation with depression (r=.43, p<.000) and stress (r=.17, p=.002). The result of the multiple regression analysis to identify the predicting variables of suicide ideation showed that the independent variables, i.e., depression (Ղ=.26, p<.001), recent frequency of suicidal ideation (Ղ=.24, p<.001), contacts on suicidal ideation (Ղ=.19, p<.001), and access to internet suicide site (Ղ=.16, p<.001), influence suicide ideation. At the technical high school in Busan, suicide ideation was accounted for by these factors with 42.6% of variance. The results of this study indicate that depression had the strongest effect upon suicide ideation in the adolescent population and that there is a need to develop programs that focus on depression and stress management. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:39∼47)
The Development of Supportive Group Program for a Young Woman with Bulimia Nervosa
Jooran Kim*, Sungjae Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):49-60.   Published online March 30, 2011
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The study was designed to develop a supportive group program for young women with bulimia nervosa. The study was conducted from January 2009 to July 2009. To develop the program, related literature was reviewed and the needed clinical observation and expert consulting was done. Based on the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and support group, a program was developed. The developed program consisted of eight parts. The themes of the eight sessions were 1) Change of self, 2) What causes bulimic symptoms? 3) Feelings: A gift of the Heart, 4) Stopping Binge Eating, 5) Is the thin ideal best? 6) Challenging the Pressure to be Thin, 7) Hidden Thinking, 8) Journey Toward Finding Myself. This program included the thin-ideal internalization concept and combined with the advantages of cognitive behavioral therapy and support groups. This program could help to prevent eating disorders and relapse. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:49∼59)
Delayed Neuroprotective Effect of Isoflurane Preconditioning on Brain Ischemia in Gerbils
Jung-Wook Park*, Young-Kyu Choi*, Hyub Huh*, Jae-Woo Yi*, Bong-Jae Lee*, Il-Gyu Ko&#;, Sung-Eun Kim&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Hong Kim&#;, Dong-Hee Kim&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):61-68.   Published online March 30, 2011
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Ischemic brain injury is the underlying pathophysiology of stroke and traumatic brain injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) with anesthetics has been considered to be an effective method for protecting organs against ischemic insult. In the present study, we investigated the delayed effect of isoflurane (ISO) preconditioning on memory ability and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global ischemia in gerbils. One hour before the induction of brain ischemia, the gerbils in the ISO-treated groups were subjected to inhalation of 4.2% (2.0 MAC) isoflurane for 30 min as a method of preconditioning. Global ischemia was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The gerbils were sacrificed 6 days after surgery. In the present study, ISO preconditioning prevented the ischemia-induced decrease in the latency of the step-down avoidance task. ISO preconditioning also reduced the ischemia-induced increase in the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive and caspase-3-positive cells. These results demonstrated the possibility that ISO preconditioning prevents ischemia-induced memory impairment by inhibiting apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In this study, we demonstrated that ISO preconditioning is an effective method of reducing ischemic brain injury during the delayed phase. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:61∼68)
Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Alveolar Epithelial Cells
Cheon-Woong Choi*, Jee-Hong Yoo*, Sung-Eun Kim&#;, Yun-Hee Sung&#;, Jin-Hee Seo&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Dong-Hee Kim&#;, Chang-Ju Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):69-78.   Published online March 30, 2011
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The lung is exposed to various stimulants, such as reactive nitrogen species. Alveolar epithelial cells are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO), which is a free radical inorganic gas synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO mediates many biological processes, but excessive NO exposure induces apoptosis in various cell types. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has recently been shown to modulate apoptotic pathways. EGCG is the most abundant and most active ingredient of green tea. EGCG has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG exhibits a protective effect against apoptosis induced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in human lung epithelial cells. To confirm the anti-apoptotic properties of EGCG, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation assay, and Western blotting were performed using human alveolar type II L-132 cells. The present results show that SNP induced apoptotic morphological changes, increased the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and enhanced the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in L-132 human lung epithelial cells. However, EGCG treatment remarkably increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, decreased the expression of Bax, and suppressed the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. The results of the present study revealed that EGCG exerts a protective effect against SNP-induced apoptosis in L-132 human lung epithelial cells. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:69∼77)
The Influence of Stress-related Personality Traits, Hardiness, and Burnout on Job Satisfaction in Nurse
Kuem-Sun Han, Young-Hee Park, Sung-Ryul Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):79-88.   Published online March 30, 2011
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The purpose of the study was to investigate stress-related personality traits, hardiness, and burnout on job satisfaction in nurse. The study included 250 nurses working in 3 university hospitals in Seoul and Kyunggi provinces. The data were collected from 13, November, 2009 to 24th November, 2009. It was analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation of SPSS and with multiple stepwise regression. The results are as follows. They were significant differences in stress resistant personality trait, hardiness, burnout, and job satisfaction by education, marital status, religion, position, field. There was found significant and positive correlation among stress resistant personality trait and job satisfaction; significant and negative correlation among stress resistant personality trait and burnout; significant and negative correlation among burnout and hardiness, job satisfaction. Regression analysis, burnout, hardiness, stress-related personality traits order influenced job satisfaction. Stress-related personality traits, hardiness, and burnout were significant predictors of job satisfaction. Stress-related personality traits, hardiness, and burnout is an important factor of job satisfaction in nurse, and significant correlations between their relationships. The results suggest that hospital and nursing managers must recognize these facts and provide various intervention to improving the job satisfaction in nurse. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:79∼87)
In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Squid Lecithin-transphosphatidylated Phosphatidylserine in Raw 264.7 Cells
Mijung Yeom*, Hyun-Jung Park*, Hyun-Soo Shim*, Insop Shim*,&#;, Jeong-Jun Han&#;, Guk Hoon Chung&#;, Song Her&#;, Dong-Myong Jeong&#;, Dae-Hyun Hahm*,&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2011;19(1):89-94.   Published online March 30, 2011
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In the present study, the effects of squid-derived phosphatidylserine (PS) have been evaluated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-Ձ) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1Ղ) in the macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of PS in Raw 264.7 macrophages was measured by MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. The mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Ձ and interleukin (IL)-1Ղ were measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Cytotoxic effects of PS in Raw 264.7 macrophages were not observed at concentration up to 100 Ռg/ml. Squid PS inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-Ձ but not IL-1Ղ. Taken together, these results indicated that squid-originated PS exhibited a significant activity of anti-inflammation in vitro and might be a useful candidate for treating various inflammatory diseases. (Korean J Str Res 2011;19:89∼95)

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