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Volume 18(4); December 2010
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Original Articles
Short-Term Repeated Treadmill Exercise More Potently Increases Cell Proliferation and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Hippocampus of Rats
Ji-Heon Jung*, Hyung-Hwan Baik*, Tae-Woon Kim&#;,&#;, Il-Gyu Ko&#;, Eun-Sang Ji&#;, Mal-Soon Shin&#;, Bo-Kyun Kim&#;, Jin-Hee Seo&#;, Dong-
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):295-304.   Published online December 30, 2010
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Physical exercise enhances cell proliferation and/or neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the modulation of neurotransmitters turnover, neurite genesis, and neuronal survival. BDNF binds to the tyrosine kinas B (TrK). In this study, we compared the effects of the one bout of long-duration treadmill exercise and the repeated short-duration treadmill exercise on cell proliferation and expressions of BDNF and TrKB in the hippocampus. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200±5 g, were randomly divided into three groups (n=8 in each group): control group, one hour-one bout-treadmill exercise group, and ten minutes-six bouts-treadmill exercise group. The rats in the one hour-one bout-treadmill exercise group were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 60 min once a day (at 16:00). The rats in the ten minutes-six bouts-treadmill exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill once 10 minutes per six times for a day (at 10:00, 11:00, 14:00, 15:00, 19:00, 20:00). Treadmill exercise was continued for 7 consecutive days. The rats in the control group were left without running. Both types of treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and enhanced expressions of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus. Cell proliferation and BDNF expression was more potently increased by the ten minutes-six bouts treadmill exercise than the one hour-one bout treadmill exercise. These results showed that repeated bouts of short-duration treadmill exercise may achieve more useful results for the brain functions than one-bout long-duration treadmill exercise. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:295∼303)
Protective Effect of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannf on Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Memory Deficit and Apoptotic Neuronal Cell Death in Rats
Dae-Young Kim*, Il-Gyu Ko*, Bo-Kyun Kim*, Sung-Eun Kim*, Shin-Ho Lee*, Young-Ho Jin*, Dong-Hee Kim&#;, Chang-Ju Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):305-314.   Published online December 30, 2010
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Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common cause of stroke, and it occurs mainly in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum, and pons. Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannf (Dangshen) is the roots of a perennial herb, the same family as ginseng. It comprises a rich resource of neuroactive compounds, and they are potential signaling molecules. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Codonopsis pilosula intrastriatal on hemorrhage-induced memory deficit and apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats. ICH in the striatum was induced by injection of collagenase using strereotaxic instrument. The rats in the Codonopsis pilosula treated groups received Codonopsis pilosula orally once a day for 14 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. For this study, step-down avoidance task, radial 8-arm maze task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, Western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were performed. The present results showed that cognitive incapacity by ICH was associated with the increase of apoptosis in the striatum. Codonopsis pilosula treatment alleviated the ICH-induced impairment of spatial learning ability and short-term memory by suppressing neuronal apoptosis in the striatum. Here in this study, we suggest that Codonopsis pilosula is effective for the recovery after ICH insult. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:305∼ 314)
Factors Affecting the Mental Health of the Korean American Elderly in the Los Angeles County: Focusing on the Socioeconomic Traits and Social Capital Traits
Bum Jung Kim*, Hongjik Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):315-326.   Published online December 30, 2010
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This study aims to explore the factors that affect the Korean American elderly's mental health. Especially, it attempted to explore how the socioeconomic characteristics and social capital of the elderly affect their mental health. Data on the 205 elderly who were at the age of 60 or over and lived in the Los Angeles County were analyzed for this purpose. The level of mental health was measured by the GDSSF-K (Generic Depression Scale Short Form-Korea Version) and personal, familial, and human capital traits were measured as socioeconomic natures of the respondents. Also, the social capital was measured by norm, trust, partnership in community, information sharing, and participation in community. This study conducted descriptive statistics analyses and multiple regression analyses to explore the determinants of mental health of the Korean American elderly. Although the level of mental health for the elderly was varied significantly according to their diverse socioeconomic as well as social capital natures, only age, subjective health status, norm, partnership in community, and information sharing participation were statistically significant predictors to the level of mental health in the total model. Policy and program implications and suggestions were delivered to help the Korean American elderly increase their social capital and finally enhance their level of mental health. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:315∼325)
Effects of Stress and Sleep Deprivation on Human Postural Control
Geun-Ho Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):327-336.   Published online December 30, 2010
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Fatigue accompanying sleep deprivation due to stressful conditions has become an issue of major concern in modern technological society. This study was designed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control and to assess the efficacy of a short objective posturographic test as an indicator of fatigue. Postural sway using static posturography, subjective fatigue assessment (Stanford Sleepiness Scale) and computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) test were assessed in 30 healthy male subjects before and after 24 h of sustained wakefulness. After sustained wakefulness, center-of-pressure sway showed a significant increase in spectral power at high frequencies. CDP test showed decreased vestibular ratio after sleep deprivation. Also it showed significant increase of latencies and slowed adaptations after sleep deprivation. Subjective fatigue assessment scores were also significantly increased. The vestibular function appears to be affected by fatigue. The reduction of adaptation is likely related to slowed central postural reflexes. Fatigue caused by sleep deprivation can be objectively assessed by a short, non-invasive, postural test. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:327∼335)
Knowledge and Attitude for Cancer Pain Management of Nursing Students
Sung Reul Kim, Eun Mi Lee, Sun Hee Kim, Yun Ok Kim, Hee Jung Kim, Myoung Soon Park, Jeong Hyun Cho, Hae Kwang Jung, KuemSun Han
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):337-344.   Published online December 30, 2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of the Korean undergraduate nursing students on the pain management for the patients suffering cancer. Total 289 undergraduate nursing students from two universities and one college in Seoul and Busan area were participated. The data collection conducted from April 13 to 21, 2009. A SPSS program (Version 11.5) was used to analyze the descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA. The data were obtained using scale for evaluating nurse knowledge and attitude for pain developed by McCaffery and Ferrell. The average score of the knowledge and attitude on cancer pain management was 49.5 (±11.2). The scores of sub-dimensions of knowledge on cancer pain management were as follows: pain assessment 51.0, drug administration 46.4, and pharmacokinetics of opioids 51.1. Fifty-two percent of the nursing students were reluctant to administer opioid analgesics for controlling the cancer pain of their future patients. The more the students received education and had clinical experience regarding the cancer pain management, the higher their scores of the knowledge and attitude on the cancer pain management was. The education and clinical experience concerning cancer pain management were critical factor for better knowledge and attitude of undergraduate nursing students. In this regards, developing the specific education and clinical practice program for nursing students on how to manage patient's cancer pain in the curriculum would be beneficial to improve the appropriate cancer management for patients suffering severe cancer pain. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:337∼344)
The Relationship between Stress and Depression in Nursing College Students
Young Ju Son*, Eun Young Choi, Young A Song
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):345-352.   Published online December 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was an descriptive research to investigate the relationship between stress and depression in nursing collage students during their collage lives and clinical practices, and to offer basic data used to find an alternative of reducing their stress. The subjects of this study were 562 nursing college students. The data were collected from structured questionnaire, and were collected from October to December, 2008. The results were summarized as follows; The mean score for stress was 2.58 and depression was 17.81. Stress with subjects' general characteristics was related to grade, age, pocket money, academic record, personality, meal time, perceived physical health status, and satisfaction of appearance. Depression with subjects' general characteristics was related to academic record, personality, meal time, perceived physical health status, and satisfaction of appearance. The relationship between stress and depression revealed a positive significant correlation. The implications of this study included that stress control program, the best way of influencing stress reduction, should be developed and provided it for them to prevent stress and to manage inevitable stress in nursing college students. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:345∼351)
Comparisons of Intellectual Functions among Patients with Anxiety, Depressive and Psychotic Disorder
Hye-Yeon Jeon, Eun-Hee Park, Duk-In Jon
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):353-362.   Published online December 30, 2010
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This study was investigated about the characteristics of intellectual functions among patients with anxiety, depressive and psychotic disorder on the Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS). The participants were 47 patients with anxiety disorder, 56 patients with depressive disorder, and 62 patients with psychotic disorder. The data were statistically analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlling for age and educational level. It was found that the anxiety disorder group acquired significantly higher scores in digit span subtest than the depressive disorder and psychotic disorder groups. The psychotic disorder group acquired significantly lower scores in arithmetic subtest, performance IQ, Freedom from Distractibility factor than the anxiety and depressive disorder groups. Moreover, the psychotic disorder group scored significantly lower in several subtests (comprehension, picture arrangement, object assembly, and digit symbol), verbal and full scale IQ, and perceptual organization factor than the anxiety disorder group. The result suggests that the three clinical groups are differential differences in terms of intellectual abilities. It implicates the probability that it would reflect the differences of functional level in everyday life in each group. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:353∼362)
Factors Influencing Quality of Life among Korean Immigrants in Canada
Yoonjung Kim, Jeongyee Bae
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):363-370.   Published online December 30, 2010
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The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the factors influencing quality of life among Korean immigrants in Canada. Survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted with 386 people in Canada (Vancouver and Toronto). The data collected was SPSS 17.0 t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and multiple regression was analyzed. Quality of life showed a significantly positive correlation with the following variables: self-esteem (r=−.43, p<.001), social support (r=−.38, p<.001), and family cohesion (r=−.20, p<.001). And significantly negative correlation with the following variables: depression (r=.44, p<.001). The result of the multiple regression analysis to identify the predicting variables to quality of life showed that among the independent variables, self-esteem (Ղ=−.19, p=.001), depression (Ղ=.32, p<.001), and social support (Ղ=−.22, p<.001) influence on to quality of life of Korean immigrants in Canada. Quality of life was accounted for 29.0% of variance by these factors. This result that psychological factors such as self-esteem, depression, and social support. This study also investigated that the following socio-demographic factors significantly affect quality of life: marital state, immigration life satisfaction and physical health status. Thus, the most effective promotion of quality of life must focus on improving immigration life satisfaction, physical health status, self-esteem, social support, and prevention of depression. By addressing the factors related to quality of life, and comparing each influence, this study can contribute to designing an appropriate prevention strategy in further improve immigrants stress. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:363∼370)
Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Stresses, and Psychological Stresses among Female College Students
Kyung-Hyun Suh*, Seung-Ae Yang
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):371-378.   Published online December 30, 2010
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This study examined how narcissism and self-esteem are related to interpersonal stresses and psychological stresses of female college students, and investigated the interaction effects of self-esteem and narcissism in interpersonal stresses and psychological stresses. The participants were 454 female college students, whose ages ranged from 18 to 31. The psychological tests used in this research included the following: Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Life Stress Scale for college students, and Stress Response Inventory. Results indicated that women's narcissistic traits were positively correlated with self-esteem. Women's narcissism was not significantly related to interpersonal stresses and some of the psychological stresses, such as aggressiveness and anger in correlational analysis, while it was negatively related to depression. However, if it was adjusted by self-esteem in hierarchial regression analyses, women's narcissism accounted variance of interpersonal stresses and all of the psychological stresses, positively. This means women's narcissism may aggravate some stresses if adjusted the positive effect of self-esteem factors. There were no interaction effects of self-esteem and narcissism in women's interpersonal stresses and psychological stresses. It was discussed roles of women's narcissism and self-esteem with previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:371∼378)
Development of a Stress Management Program Using Flash
Yang-Sook Hah
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):379-388.   Published online December 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based stress management system for 20's∼50's Korean adults. To identify user's information needs, research process includes needs assessment analysis, design, development/testing, and application release. For needs assessment included literature review, interviews and surveys. Based on the user's needs, a「Stress-down」program was developed. The program was evaluated by users for their satisfaction with the program and by experts for the quality of the program. 「Stress-down」 program was consists of 4 stress tests and stress management clinic. In the stress test section, 4 tests was used to find the user's stress, symptom, coping style, and personal vulnerability to stress. In the stress management clinic, useful management method was introduced. This program recommend the adequate management method by tailored intervention system. The「Stress-down」program was released using URL:http://www.stressdown.net. It is expected that this web-based stress management system will contribute to the mental health promotion on Korean adults as well as provide a community for the stress related researchers and professionals to share information on the web-based stress management. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:379∼387)
Association between ARPC2 Polymorphisms and Kawasaki Disease in Korean Children
Su Sang Jung*, Sung Wook Park*, Kyung Lim Yoon&#;, Moo Il Kwon*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(4):389-393.   Published online December 30, 2010
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of infants and young children that predominantly affects the coronary arteries. KD is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed countries. We hypothesized that the actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34 kDa (ARPC2) gene may be related to the development of KD. In this study, the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ARPC2 and KD were investigated in 111 KD patients and 429 healthy controls. Two promoter (rs6720105, −099G/A and rs6720449, −839G/A) and 5 intronic SNPs (rs12992937, rs10932765, rs10169718, rs6436047, and rs13430006) were selected, and genotypes of each SNP were analyzed using Affymetrix targeted genotyping chip. The genetic data of 7 SNPs were evaluated by SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, Haploview, and Helixtree programs. Two promoter SNPs (rs6720105 and rs6720449) were weakly associated with KD. The SNP rs6720105 showed a statistical difference between KD and controls in the codominant model (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.00∼2.10, p=0.042). The SNP rs6720449 also showed differences between KD and controls in the codominant (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.02∼2.14, p=0.036) and dominant models (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.01∼2.40, p=0.045), respectively. In the analysis of haplotypes, a haplotype (AATTAAG) was weakly associated with KD (frequency=0.249, chi square=3.867, p=0.049). The results suggest that ARPC2 may be associated with the development of KD in Korean children. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:389∼394)

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