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Volume 18(3); September 2010
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Original Articles
Effects of Multiple Psychological Interventions Based on Positive Psychology in the Forest Environments on the Victims of Oil Spill in Taean
Young-Eun Jung*, Min-Sun Park&#;, Joo-Eon Park&#;,&#;, Jong-Min Woo&#;,&#;, Soo Chan Choi&#;,&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae*,&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):181-189.   Published online September 30, 2010
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The oil spill around Taean peninsula has traumatized and has dawned such psychological sufferings onto the inhabitants. The purpose of this research is to identify the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Taean inhabitants and investigate the effects of multiple psychological interventions that took place in the forest environments. Thirty seven Taean inhabitants voluntarily participated in the program which was held at an arboretum in Kangwon-do for 3 days. The program consisted of multiple psychological interventions based on positive psychology. We assessed the participants using self-reporting questionnaires consisting of symptoms related to trauma and stress-related reactions. As a results, the majority of Taean inhabitants participating in the program had serious PTSD symptoms. The psychological interventions based on positive psychology in the forest environments is effective in alleviating stress reactions and stabilizing physiologic response. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:181∼189)
Mental Health Status of Korean Immigrants in Canada
Jeongyee Bae*, Youngsuk Park&#;, Sookhee Yoon*, Yoonjung Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):191-199.   Published online September 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to survey the basic data for Korean immigrants' mental health status (somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, Sensitivity) in Canada. A descriptive study has been conducted to report Korean immigrants' mental health states, to identify the risk factors associated with mental health. Three hundred eighty six Korean immigrants' in Canada were analyzed by visit-survey with an organized questionnaire. SCL-90-R for measurement of mental health was used. The data collected using SPSS 17.0 frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was analyzed. Somatization was 7.54±6.04 ranged 0 to 32, depression was 9.07±6.86 ranged 0 to 38, anxiety was 28±5.10 ranged 0 to 28, hostility was 2.89±3.05 ranged 0 to 22, and sensitivity was 5.83±4.66 ranged 0 to 30. This study shows that a number of characteristics of the Korean immigrants in Canada affect levels of mental health states, the most noticeable of these factors being sex, job, immigration satisfaction and heath state. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:191∼199)
Effect of Exercise Intensity on Expressions of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Ձ and Interleukin-6 in Rats with Lipopolysaccharide-induced Low-grade Systemic Inflammation
Dae-Young Kim*, Ki-Jeong Kim*, Yun-Hee Sung*, Jin-Hee Seo*, Sung-Eun Kim*, Bo-Kyun Kim*, Taeck-Hyun Lee*, Chang-Ju Kim*, Dong-Hee Kim&#;, Hyun-Hee Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):201-208.   Published online September 30, 2010
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In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-Ձ (TNF-Ձ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced low-grade systemic inflammation. Forty-five male Sprague- Dawley rats were used for the present study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=9 in each group): control group, LPS-treated group, LPS-treated and low-intensity exercise group, LPS-treated and moderate-intensity exercise group, and LPS-treated and high-intensity exercise group. Each training session consisted of one bout of treadmill running for 60 min at 0 degree of inclination. The exercise load of low-intensity was at a speed of 8 m/min, moderate-intensity was at a speed of 14 m/min, and high-intensity was at a speed of 22 m/min. In the present results, the concentrations of TNF-Ձ and IL-6 in the serum were increased by LPS injection. The expressions of TNF-Ձ and IL-6 in the motor cortex and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus were also increased by LPS injection. Treadmill exercise at all intensities suppressed LPS-induced TNF-Ձ levels in the serum, motor cortex, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Treadmill exercise at high-intensity enhanced IL-6 levels in the serum, motor cortex, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Our present study showed that high-intensity treadmill exercise decreased TNF-Ձ level and increased IL-6 level in the serum, motor cortex, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats with LPS-induced low-grade systemic inflammation. These results suggest that treadmill exercise at high-intensity may be valuable strategy for overcoming the low-grade systemic inflammation. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:201∼208)
Effects of Gambisu Inhalation on the Expressions of Neurotransmitters Implicated in the Food Intake in the Hypothalamus and Cognition of Starved Mice
Dong-Hyun Kim*, Il-Gyu Ko*, Sung-Eun Kim*, Ji-Eun Kim*, Yeon-Ho Kang*, Tae-Woon Kim*, Eun-Sang Ji*, Yong-Min Kim*, Ee-Hwa Kim&#;, Jeong-Beum Kim&#;, Dong-Hee Kim&#;, Chang-Ju Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):209-217.   Published online September 30, 2010
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In the present study, we investigated the effects of Gambisu inhalation on the expressions of neurotransmitters implicated in the food intake in the hypothalamus and cognition using starved mice. For this, the effects of Gambisu inhalation on the expressions of leptin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus of starved mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Short-term memory of the mice was also assessed using a passive avoidance task and brain-derived neurothrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus was determined by Western blot analysis. ICR mice were divided into three groups: control group, starvation group, and starvation with Gambisu inhalation group. The mice in the food-deprivation group were restricted food for 48 h. The mice in the Gambisu inhalation group were exposed to inhale Gambisu for 60 min twice a day for 2 consecutive days. The present results showed that food-deprivation decreased leptin expression and increased NPY expression in the PVN of the hypothalamus. Food-deprivation decreased short-term memory ability and also suppressed BDNF expression in the hippocampus. However, Gambisu inhalation increased leptin expression and decreased NPY expression in the PVN of hypothalamus under the starvation conditions. Gambisu inhalation alleviated starvation-induced short-term memory impairment and enhanced BDNF expression in the hippocampus under the starvation conditions. The present study revealed that Gambisu inhalation might suppress desire for food intake and exert beneficial effect on cognition by enhancing BDNF expression in the hippocampus under the starvation conditions. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:209∼217)
MBTI Personality Type, Self-Efficacy, and Ways of Coping in Nursing Students
Jee Young Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):219-227.   Published online September 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of MBTI preference and self-efficacy on ways of coping in Nursing Students. A descriptive survey study conducted visit-surveys with questionnaires and sampled 135 female nursing students in Seoul, Daejeon, and Chungnam. Korean version of MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), Self- efficacy scale, and Ways of coping checklist was used. Data was analyzed by t-test, and multiple regression analysis using SPSS/WIN 12.0. The results of this study are following. The degree of self-efficacy according to personality preference were significantly different in Extroversion and Thinking preference. And the degree of problem-focused coping according to personality preference were significantly different in Extroversion, Thinking and Judgement preference. On the other hand, In the emotion-focused coping, Introversion and Feeling preference was significantly different. Multi regression analysis showed Judgement preference and self-efficacy significantly influenced problem-focused coping and Introversion and Feeling preference significantly influenced emotion-focused coping. The findings suggest that health professionals, while developing and providing the stress management program need to be aware of the personality type and self-efficacy and ways of coping in nursing students. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:219∼227)
Suppressive Effect of Clozapine through Regulation of Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand Genes in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Hae Jeong Park*, Ah Rang Cho&#;, Jin Kyung Park&#;, Won Sub Kang&#;, Jong Woo Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):229-235.   Published online September 30, 2010
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Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, has proven to be effective in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. As the idiosyncratic clozapine-induced adverse effects such as dyslipidemia and agranulocytosis occur in 0.5∼2% of the treated patients, the use of clozapine has been limited. In this study, we assessed the patterns of gene regulation by clozapine (10ՌM, 24 h) in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells through microarray analysis. Clozapine upregulated the expressions of 165 genes, and downregulated the expressions of 305 genes. Of these genes, clozapine potently increased the level of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 gene (CCL3, 15.596-fold) and decreased the level of retinoic acid early transcript 1E (RAET1E, 0.171-fold). Both of these genes belong to the category of immune response-related genes. We also found the changes of the expressions of immune response-related genes were most remarkable. Especially, clozapine increased the levels of chemokine genes, such as CCL3 (also known as MIP-1Ձ), CCL2 (also known as MCP-1), and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 (CCR3). This result may contribute to understanding of adverse effects of clozapine. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:229∼235)
Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphisms with Obesity in Korean Population
Su Kang Kim*, Seung-Ae Yang&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):237-243.   Published online September 30, 2010
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The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in metabolism of folate. To examine MTHFR gene and its relation to obesity in Korean population, 209 overweight/obese and 160 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs1537514, rs11559040, and rs1801133) in exon region and seven SNPs (rs3818762, rs12121543, rs1994798, rs6541003, rs4846052, rs17037396, and rs17367504) in intron region of MTHFR gene were selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and the genotyping was performed using Affymetrix targeted genotyping chip array. For analysis of genetic data, SNPStats, HelixTree, SNPAnalyzer, and Haploview version 4.2 softwares were used. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant 1, codominant 2, dominant, and recessive models) were performed for odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and p value. To obtain the defined results, p values were recalculated by Bonferroni correction. After Bonferroni correction, genotype distributions of two SNPs showed significant associations with overweight/obese (rs1537514, OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.36∼5.47, p=0.030 in dominant model) (rs17367504, OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.39∼4.98, p=0.030 in codominant 1 model; OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.51-5.34, p=0.010 in dominant model). Alleles of rs1537514 and rs17367504 were associated with overweight/obese (rs1537514, OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.43∼5.36, p=0.030; rs17367504, OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.57∼5.15, p=0.010). Haplotype (CGACGCT) was also correlated with overweight/obese (chi square=9.312, p=0.002). These results indicate that MTHFR gene may be associated with obesity in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:237∼243)
Role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (Stat6) in Alcohol-induced Brain Damage
Hae Jeong Park*, Jong Woo Kim&#;, Ah Rang Cho&#;, Jin Kyung Park&#;, Won Sub Kang&#;, Doh Joon Yoon&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):245-253.   Published online September 30, 2010
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) modified cell differentiation and growth, and induced the resistance to apoptosis in various tissues and cells. In this study, we assessed the role of Stat6 on acute ethanol-induced intoxication in mouse brain using Stat6 knockout (KO) mouse. The acute ethanol intoxication was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol (2 g/kg) in BALB/c wild type (WT), and Stat6 KO mice. After collecting the brains of WT and KO mice, we performed 7.4 K mouse cDNA microarray analysis. The expression profiles were compared between non-treated and ethanol-treated groups for WT and Stat6 KO mice respectively. In the brains of WT mice, the changes of the expressions of transcription factor genes related with cell proliferation were shown. The ethanol increased the level of SRY-box containing gene 4 (Sox4), and decreased the level of hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). In the brains of Stat6 KO mice, the acute ethanol altered the expressions of cell death-related genes. Particularly, the acute ethanol upregulated the expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase 7 (Casp7) and inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase D (Inpp5d), and of cell cycle regulatory factor gene Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (P57) (Cdkn1c). In contrast, it downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc). These results indicated that the acute ethanol treatment induced the brain damage, and the deficiency of Stat6 elevated this brain damage via apoptotic pathway. Our study suggests that Stat6 may play a crucial role in ethanol-induced brain damage. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:245∼253)
The Comparison of Mental Health and Life Style between Normal Weight Children and Obese Children
Mi Ja Tak*, Hee Moon&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):255-263.   Published online September 30, 2010
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The purpose of this research was to examine the difference of the life style and mental health between normal weight and obese children, and to present a more scientific data for efficient obesity management in school. The subjects for this research were 5th and 6th grade children from five elementary schools in a city. The subjects were 155 normal weight children and 151 obese children according to BMI. The data analysis was performed by the SPSS win 11.0 program. The results of this study are as follows. First, in personal hygiene habits, normal weight children have more better than obese children. Second, in dietary habits, normal weight children have more positive than obese children. Third, there was no significant difference between normal weight children and obese children. Fourth, in mental health, normal weight children have more positive than obese children. Fifth, both of normal weight children and obese children have relation in life style and mental health. As the result, right life style positive effect to mental health. Finally, the obesity related to personal hygiene habits, dietary habits, and exercise habits. So it is important to form a good life habit in childhood. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:255∼263)
Relationship between Torture Experience and Life Satisfaction among North Korean Refugees in South Korea
Juna Byun
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):265-273.   Published online September 30, 2010
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This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between torture experience and life satisfaction among North Korean refugees in South Korea. One hundred and nineteen refugees were surveyed from January through June of 2008 using the Istanbul Protocol for Torture Experience (KRCT, 2004) and the Cantril Life Satisfaction Ladder (Cantril, 1965) for life satisfaction. This study found that there were significant negative correlations between degree of torture experience and those of life satisfaction at the time of residence in North Korea (r=−0.72, p<0.01), Hanawon stay in South Korea (r=−0.52, p<0.01), and permanent residence in South Korea (r=−0.37, p<0.05). All respondents were experienced torture. Average degree of torture experience was 26.1 (±1.70). The average degree of life satisfaction were 1.96 (±1.28) at residence in North Korea, 2.25 (±0.91) at temporal stay in the third worlds such as China etc., 8.77 (±0.58) at Hanawon stay in South Korea, and 7.24 (±1.36) at permanent residence in South Korea. The degree of life satisfaction at residence in North Korea was significantly lower than that of Hanawon (t=−46.80, p<0.001) and that of permanent residence in South Korea (t=−27.46, p<0.001). The degree of life satisfaction at Hanawon stay was significantly higher than that of that of permanent residence in South Korea (t=−10.82, p<0.01). To conclude, to North Korean refugees, torture experiences during defection affected on their life satisfaction in permanent residence in South Korea. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:265∼273)
The Effect of Stress on the Changes of B-type Natriuretic Peptide Expression and HRV in Myocardial Infarction Model Rats
Sam Youn Lee&#;, Mi Kyoung Lee&#;, Nam-ho Kim&#;, Min Cheol Joo&#;, Hyang Jeong Jo&#;, Ji Sook Kang&#;, Byung Sook Kim&#;, Sun Sik Yoon*, Eul Sig Choi*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):275-285.   Published online September 30, 2010
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Diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with less favorable prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI). It has been reported that very low frequency (VLF) power in HRV analysis is an independent risk predictor in patients with congestive heart failure and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) can be used as a prognostic factor of MI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stress has an effect to the changes of BNP expression and/or heart rate variability in MI model in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (CON), MI group (MI+No Stress), and MI followed by stress group (MI+Stress). MI+Stress group rats were raised for a two month recovery period after the operation, followed by being exposed to restraint stress for 2 hours per day for 1 week. Electrocardiogram was recorded after the operation and the last day after 1 week of stress. The frequency components of HRV were calculated in the frequency domain such as VLF, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and so on. In HRV analysis, standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals (SDNN) was significantly reduced in both groups compared to the control group. VLF and LF also were significantly reduced in MI+Stress group compared to the control groups. In addition, BNP expression in western blotting was shown the strongest bands in MI+Stress group among experimental groups. These results suggest that BNP and HRV were aggravated by stress in MI rat model. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:275∼285)
The Effect of Laughter Therapy Program on Mental Health
Hyeong Woo Park
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(3):287-294.   Published online September 30, 2010
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This study aimed at proving the effects of a laughter therapy program on mental health. Subjects of this study were 25 people who enrolled in a program at the Lifelong Education Center affiliated with Chonnam National University. The researcher delivered a six-session laughter therapy program from September 1st to October 13th, 2008, once a week for 150 minutes from 7 to 9:30p.m. Korean version of Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) was used to see effects of the program under a scientific-subject design. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 program, and t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to verify effects of the laughter therapy program on mental health. The following results were obtained in the study. As results of this tests conducted before and after the program, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, global severity index (G.S.I), positive symptom total (P.S.T) and positive symptom distress index (P.S.D.I) displayed significantly lower figures after the theory program data. In conclusion, the subjects displayed significant decreases in 9 scales of SCL-90-R after receiving the laughter therapy program. This indicates that the laughter therapy program has a positive effect on the subjects' mental health. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:287∼294)

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