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Volume 18(2); June 2010
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Original Articles
The Effects of the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Speech Anxiety
Jin-Chul Kim, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):59-68.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on the speech-related cognitive variables. After the preliminary data were collected from 508 people, sixteen who had high level of speech anxiety were selected. Among them eight subjects were assigned to the Treatment Group and eight subjects to the Control Group. Eight sessions of the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy were administered to the Treatment Group. Participants of the two groups completed Fear of Negative Evaluation-Brief, Self-Focused Attention, Negative Automatic Thoughts, Dysfunctional Beliefs Test and Speech Anxiety Scale, before and after the treatment and 4 weeks later. The Treatment Group showed a higher remission rate on the anxiety scale scores than the Control Group after the treatment. This result suggests that the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy may be effective on reduction of the speech anxiety. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:59∼68)
Attentional Biases, Memory Biases and Cognitive Characteristics in the Somatization Group
Moon Gyu Park, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):69-79.   Published online June 30, 2010
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Cognitive processes are considered to be relevant to the etiology and maintenance of somatoform disorders. The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional biases, the memory biases and the cognitive characteristics in the somatization group. For this purpose, we administered several self-report tests, the modified Stroop task, and the incidental memory task to 17 patients with somatization and 18 normal control group. The major results and the implications of this study were as followings. The somatization group showed the significant Stroop interference effects for somatic-symptom words and more accurately recognized the somatic-symptom words than the other words. These results suggested that the somatization group have cognitive biases for somatic-symptom words. Also the somatization group significantly less recalled positive words than did the normal group. Besides, the somatization group revealed the cognitive functioning difficulty. Finally, the limitations of this study and the directions of future study were discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:69∼79)
Stress-induced Neuroimmuno Alterations in the Rat
Hyun-ju Lee*&#;, Kyung Soo Kim*, Insop Shim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):81-86.   Published online June 30, 2010
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Severe stress such as immobilization (IMO) affects the central nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune system that interact each other. IMO-induced responses are activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and production of inflammatory cytokine. The locus coeruleus (LC), which is known to play a role in modulating stress response, innervates the paraventricular neucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus thereby activating HPA-axis. In this study, IMO-induced alterations of HPA-axis hormones and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were investigated. The final hormone of HPA-axis, corticosterone (CORT) was injected to clarify the interaction of the HPA-axis and IL-4 in the stress response. Single exposure of stress resulted in an increase of corticotrophin-releasing factor expression in the PVN, adrenocorticotropin hormone and CORT levels in the serum. Increased expressions of HPA-axis hormones in the acute stressed group were decreased in repeated stressed group. IL-4 level in the LC of the brain was decreased in both stressed group and repeated CORT injected group. These results suggest the possibility of stress-induced interplay of HPA-axis and IL-4 in the LC. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:81∼86)
The Influence of Stress on the Change of Health Behavior among Industrial Workers: A 4-Year Follow-up Study
Hwa Jeong Seo*, Hye Hyeon Kim&#;, Myung Hwa Ha&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):87-97.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study is to see if stress affects health behavior risk factors such as smoking, drinking, exercise and obesity. Periodic medical examinations of the workers were performed and a survey of self-answered questionnaire - medicalhistories, histories of smoking, drinking and physical activity with calculating BMI (Body Mass Index) - were conducted both in 1999 and 2002 to 7,471 male workers. We utilized a measuring tool for stress; PWI (Psychological Wellbeing Index) which is a reduced form of GHO-60 (The General Health Questionnaire). It has 5 stress levels with 4 specific factors, i.e., social performance and self-confidence, depression and so on. Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) is formed with results by 19 questionnaire of social personality type. Higher average age was observed in lower PWI and lower average pack-years of smoking and alcohol consumption with its frequency were observed in the lower PWI, and higher frequency of exercise and BMI were observed in higher PWI. During the 4-year period, the rate for smoking cessation was lower compared to the score for stress which was higher and a higher frequency of regular exercise was observed in lower PWI. The proportion of TABP was higher in higher PWI, but the proportion of Type B behavior pattern was decreased in 2002. Levels of stress appear to be closely related to health behavior. As the score for PWI increases, the proportion for improper health behaviors tended to be higher and the rate of change to the good health behavior was lower. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:87∼97)
The Effect of Perceived Parent-Adolescent Communication Style on Adolescent's Self Efficacy
Young Sun Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):99-108.   Published online June 30, 2010
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This study was to identify the effects of the perceived parent-adolescent communication style on adolescent's self efficacy. The participants for this study were 347 students from a middle school in Busan, Korea. A self-report survey was used for collection, which was carried out from July 1 to 15, 2009. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 14.0 Program. According to the results, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between opening parent-adolescent communication and self-efficacy. The higher level of opening father-adolescent communication was, the more self-efficacy increased by a factor of 2.055. The higher level of opening mother-adolescent communication was, the more self-efficacy increased by a factor of 0.078. Thus, It showed to be the effect of perceived parent-adolescent communication style on adolescent's self efficacy. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:99∼108)
Self-esteem, Interpersonal Relationship and Depression in Nursing Students
Hwa In Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):109-118.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The purpose of study was to examine the correlation among self-esteem, interpersonal relationship and depression. Descriptive correlative study was used for the design of this study, and the subjects were 431 persons who are students in nursing college. Data was collected from September, 2009 to October, 2009. Data analysis was investigated by using frequency, descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results of study were as follows. There was a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and interpersonal relationship while there was a negative correlation between self-esteem and depression. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between interpersonal relationship and depression. Especially, it was found that following students are vulnerable to depression: students who are struggling with a financial problem, who have an introvert character, who live by themselves or live with relatives rather than their parents, who are either rebellious or submissive to their parents, who did not concern their aptitude when they applied to college, who are not satisfied with college life or who are extremely unsatisfied, as well as who drink more than 3 times per week or smoke cigarette. Therefore, in order resolve depression dilemma of nursing students, it is important to intensely consider counseling and emotion supporting program through more systematical prevention and mediation focusing on groups with high risk. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:109∼118)
Comparison to Stress, Depression and Self-efficacy between Nursing Student and the Other Major University Women Student
Sun-Young Lim*, Kyoung-Min Kwon*, Yoon-Kyung Jeong*, Kuem-Sun Han&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):119-124.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to compare the stress, depression, self-efficacy between nursing student and the other major university women student. Data were collected by questionnaires from 405 university students in Seoul and Gyeongbuk area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, and pearson correlation. This study compared nursing students study the results of stress and depression than the other major university women student is much lower, but no significant differences in self-efficacy. Of other major university women student and nursing student and the general stress, depression, self-efficacy correlated with lower stress and depression low, the self-efficacy was higher. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:119∼124)
Lived Experiences of Alcoholics Who Are in Early Recovery
Sun Min Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):125-136.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The study was aimed to explore how the people who are abstinence from drinking experience their family during the period. Eight people agreed to be interviewed and the four themes were revealed. The first theme was enduring the hardship thanks to the experience of having been through thick and thin. The second theme was searching one's own role that had been lost at home. They wanted to take the position or role (s) that they used to play in the family back. The third theme was having new perspective on their daily routine at home. The fourth theme was finding one's feet at home. Not only the recovering person has to adjust to the new life but also the family members have to adapt to new situation that they had been long waiting. They appreciated the family for sustaining the family system without leaving anyone behind. The study participants acknowledged that their family have been through thick and thin. With those experiences, their family's solidarity was made and 'Cheong' played the major part of protecting the family from separating the family members. Limitations of the findings are noted and suggestions are made for future research examining the effects of family members' sobriety on families and family members. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:125∼136)
Geriatric Caregivers' Commitment, Controllability, Received Social Supports, and Stress Responses
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):137-143.   Published online June 30, 2010
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This study aims to investigate how commitment, controllability, and perceived social supports are related to stress responses of professional caregivers. The participants were 213 caregivers who were employed at a geriatric hospital, whose ages ranged from 35 to 70. The psychological tests used in this research included the following: Bartone's Hardiness Scale: Short-Form, Park's Social Supports Scale, and Stress Response Inventory. Results indicated that geriatric caregivers perceived receiving little supports from co-workers and superiors. Commitment, controllability, and perceived social supports of caregivers were negatively related with stress responses. And, these three variables accounted 16.1% variance of stress responses. Stepwise regression analyses for sub-variables of stress responses revealed that commitment, emotional and informative supports from co-workers and superiors, and evaluative supports from families were determinative. It was discussed roles of the commitment and controllability as intrapersonal variables, and perceived social supports as a external variable in stress responses with previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:137∼143)
Relationship between College Life Stress and School Adjustment for Chinese International Undergraduates in South Korea: Moderating Effects of Some Variables
Eunmi Park, Bingyi Hwang, Tae yun Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):145-152.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The study aimed to examine the moderating effect of Communicative Difficulties, Life Difficulties in Korea, and Adaptation to Korean Culture between School Adjustment and Stress, and to test difference of estimating College Life Stress of Chinese international undergraduates (CIUs) between Chinese and Korean. CIUs (n=100) and Korean undergraduates (n=98) attending a university in Seoul participated in the questionnaire study. Results indicated that School Adjustment was explained negatively by College Life Stress, and positively by Adaptation to Korean culture. Also, Life Difficulties in Korea of CIUs played a moderating role between School Adjustment and College Life Stress. The difference of estimating CIUs' college life stress between Chinese and Korean was as follows: The Korean undergraduates perceived CIUs feeling higher College Life Stress than those who actually experienced it. Despite Korean's perceiving it, CIUs realized higher Study Stress. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to relevant theories and research, and their implications for college life adjustment and limitations of the present study were suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:145∼152)
The Relations between the Conflict Resolution Ability and Conflict Resolution Styles of Nursing College Student before Clinical Practice
In-Ryeong Choi, Hye-Won Kim, Eun-Jung Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):153-160.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relations between the conflict resolution ability and conflict resolution styles in nursing college student before clinical practice. The subjects of this study were 110 students who are in the second grade of nursing college before nursing practice. The data was collected twice from May 2009 to May 2010. The data were collected from structured questionnaire. The relationship between the conflict resolution ability and cooperative conflict resolution style revealed a positive significant correlation (r=0.510, p<.001). The relationship between the conflict resolution ability and avoidant conflict resolution style revealed a negative significant correlation (r=−0.227, p<.05). The relationship between the conflict resolution ability and aggressive conflict resolution style revealed a negative significant correlation (r=−0.119, p<.05). (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:153∼160)
Changes of GABA Levels in Rat Brain Treated by Caffeine
Jin-Kyung Oh*, Eun-Yee Jung&#;, In sop Shim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):161-165.   Published online June 30, 2010
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Caffeine administration has been used to model sleep disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of caffeine with GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) levels in a translational caffeine-induced model of insomnia in rats. The change of GABA levels in caffeine-treated rat brain such as the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, raphe nuclei (RN) andventral tegmental area (VTA) was investigated. GABA levels were significantly decreased with a time course by the administration of caffeine in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. There was a tendency that the GABA level in the RN, but not in the VTA was decreased. At high dose caffeine-treated rat, GABA levels were decreased in all the brain area. Especially, GABA levels were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. These results suggest that the changes of GABA contents in caffeine-treated rat brain may be associated with many of the signs of insomnia or sleep disorders. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:161∼165)
Review Article
Application of Environmental Therapy: Focused on Forest Therapy and Hydrotherapy
Yoon-Kyung Shin*, Jun-Hyuck Baik&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(2):167-179.   Published online June 30, 2010
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The therapeutic methods using natural environment which human had employed from ancient times have gradually neglected with the development of science. The empirical remedies from natural environment in psychiatric medicine have been also regarded as unscientific since neuroleptic drugs came into use to treat the psychiatric diseases in 1950's. However, the utilization and researches of the therapies using natural environment have been growing as the association between the stresses by modern urban living and variable diseases or health problems was presented in the late 20th century. Forest therapy and hydrotherapy are widely used and easily accessible environmental therapies. Walking in forest or watching forest had not only psychological relaxation effects but also physiological relaxation effects such as the stabilization of central nervous system. Besides forest therapy contributed to the improvement and remission of the general depressive symptoms in the patients with depression and the growth of openness and self-awareness in the patients with alcohol dependence. Hydrotherapy also was effective for the alleviation of anxiety and stress and the improvement of quality of life in healthy people or the patients with physical illnesses. However, the usefulness of forest therapy and hydrotherapy in major psychiatric diseases wasn't yet conclusive. In future, environmental therapy including forest therapy and hydrotherapy needs to build up the scientific evidences through the researches, especially in psychiatric field, on psychological and physiological effectiveness, therapeutic mechanism, and the effects of the respective components in each environmental therapy. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:167∼179)

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