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Volume 18(1); March 2010
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Original Articles
Clinical Nurses' Job Stress and Stress Coping Style according to Enneagram Personality Type
Mi Jung Kang, Yang Sook Hah
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):1-10.   Published online March 31, 2010
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The purpose of this study was to justify the relationship among personality structure and job stress and stress coping skill of nurses at a hospital. Testing tools were Enneagram Korean version, tool of measuring job stress and tool of measuring stress coping skill. This research was carried on the 403 nurses in Seoul National University of Hospital located in Seoul, Korea. 368 survey sheets were obtained and analyzed by using SPSS Win 12.0. The results of this research are following. First, in the result of the inventory of the Enneagram personality of nurses, 9th type, The Meditator (n=172, 46.7%) was the largest, and 1st type, The Reformer (n=61, 16.6%) and 2nd type, The Helper (n=9, 2.4%) were next, and the 8th, The Challenger (n=9, 2.4%) was the least. According to enneagram personality, 4th type, The Individualist reported the highest job stress (2.79 point) and 7th type, The Enthusiast reported the lowest job stress (2.51 point). But we found no significant correlations between Enneagram personality and job stress. In job stress's subtype, results showed that there are the significant correlations between the 'conflict in roles as specialists' and the 'conflict in interpersonal relationship'. Finally, the results showed that the most participant using the 'seek social support' as a stress coping skill, the 'problem-focused coping' style was the second to come, the 'wishful though't was third, and the 'emotion-focused coping' style was the last. 6th type, The Loyalist, was exceptionally using the 'seek social support' as a coping skill mostly, but the 'wishful thought' was second, and the 'problem-focused' and 'emotion-focused' was the next. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:1∼10)
Influence of Academic Examination on Heart Rate Variability and Its Relationship with Test Anxiey
Myung Ae Kim*, Na Hyun Kim*, Young Sook Kwon*, Keung Hee Lee*, Sun Young Park*, Kee Sam Jung&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):11-18.   Published online March 31, 2010
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Heart rate variability (HRV) measurements is a non-invasive technique that can be used to assess autonomic function, especially the balance between sympathetic and vagal activity. The aim of this study was to test the utility of heart-rate variability (HRV) analyses as a means of quantifying autonomic regulation related to academic examination stress. In addition, we investigated the correlations of HRV with anxiety in nursing students. Autonomic function was assessed by heart rate variability and examination stress was assessed by Test Anxiety Inventory. There were three HRV data collections: baseline, during examination period, and after examination period. Analysis showed that during the examination period, a significant reduction in the timing (RMSSD, p<.05), high frequency (HF, p<.05), and normalized HF (norm HF, p<.05) of the HRV was observed, and a significant increased in the heart rate (p<.05), normalized low frequency (norm LF, p<.05), and the low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF/HF %). Majority of the changes continued after the examination period. There was correlation between HRV indices and Test Anxiety Inventory scores only during examination period. HRV can be a useful tool in assessing the role of autonomic nervous system fluctuations in healthy individual under stressful situations. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:11∼17)
Parent's Over Protection and Social Anxiety of Their Children
Kyung-Hyun Suh*, Hyun-Jin Sin*, Jee-Young Moon&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):19-27.   Published online March 31, 2010
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Researchers investigated how parent's over protection influences social anxiety of their children. Participants were 515 students (261 males and 254 females) from 4th, 5th, and 6th grade of elementary school, whose ages ranged from 9 to 13 (M=10.86, SD=1.20). The psychological tests used in this research included the following: the Korean version of Parker's Parental Bonding Instrument, LaGreca's Social Anxiety Scale, and the Korean version of Social Anxiety Scale. To achieve the purpose of this study, 2 (gender)×4 (parent's over protection) 2-way MANOVAs for interpersonal anxiety and performance anxiety were performed. Results revealed that children with higher parent's intrusion showed more interpersonal anxiety and performance anxiety than children with lower parent's intrusion. However, the influence of father's intrusion was only effective for son, whereas the influence of mother's intrusion was only effective for daughter. And, children with higher parent's autonomy respect showed less performance anxiety than children with lower parent's autonomy respect. It was discussed results of this study with previous studies, de-identification from parents, and socialization process. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:19∼27)
The Comparison of the Emotion and Self-Concept between the Juvenile Delinquents and the Ordinary Adolescents
Jisun Park
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):29-39.   Published online March 31, 2010
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This study compared emotional experiences and self-concept of 629 juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents. In result, first, juvenile delinquents had less positive emotional experiences and most negative emotional experiences than ordinary adolescents. Second, affect intensity, which measures the degree of emotional experience, was higher for ordinary adolescents than juvenile delinquents. The difference was particularly noticeable in positive emotion intensity. Third, ordinary adolescents showed stronger belief to regulate negative emotions than juvenile delinquents and used more cognitive reinterpretation strategies that helped their emotion regulation. Last, in terms of self-concepts, there was no significant difference between juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents, but within the juvenile delinquent group, male students showed better self-concepts than female students. In sum, juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents showed significant differences in positive and negative emotional experiences, affect intensity, belief to regulate negative emotions, and cognitive reinterpretation strategies for emotion regulation. However, no significant difference was found in self-concepts. The significances and limitations of this study were discussed based on these findings. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:29∼39)
Heart Rate Variability in Malocclusion Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Yoon-Ji Kim*, Gyu-Seok Bok&#;, Dae-Sung Kim&#;, Hyung-Jun Cho&#;, Ji-Suk Hong*, Jae-Mok Ahn&#;, Yang-Ho Park*
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):41-49.   Published online March 31, 2010
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The purpose of this study is to find out the difference of heart rate variability (HRV) depending on the presence of symptoms related to temporomandibular disorder (TMD), and analyze the validity and clinical relevance from 5-minute HRV data in assessing the psychosocial factors that may contribute to the etiology of the TMD. 74 patients with malocclusion aged from 20 to 40 were divided into two groups depending on the presence of TMD-related symptoms (Group A consists of malocclusion patients who had TMD symptoms and group B has malocclusion patients with no symptoms), and in both groups 5-minute HRV was measured. As a result of time-domain analysis, SDNN (standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals), RMSSD (The square root of the mean of the squared) and pNN50 (NN50 count divided by the total number of all NN intervals) were lower in group A, and the frequency-domain analysis also showed lower PSD values of TP (total power), LF (PSD in low frequency) and HF (PSD in low frequency) in group A. R (ratio of LF and HF) was in the normal range in both groups. HRV is a useful diagnostic tool that can be used to assess the psychosocial factors of TMD in malocclusion patients. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:41∼49)
Internet Game Addiction and Health Habits in Korean Adolescents
Na Young Choi*, Sung Jae Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2010;18(1):51-57.   Published online March 31, 2010
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The aim of study was to assess the extent of Internet Game Addiction (IGA) and to investigate its relationship with health behaviors in adolescents. Participants were 269 elementary and middle school students in South Korea. The modified IGA scale was used to measure internet game addiction. BMI was used to measure obesity. 36.8% of participants stayed in the early stages of IGA while 2.2% were in heavy stage of IGA. Overall the IGA scale was 50.07 (±22.43). The extent of visual acuity down, occurrence of disease, disturbance of sleeping, skipping meals or lack of outdoor exercise according to IGA scale were statistically significant. Based upon these findings, the level of IGA affects the health behaviors in adolescents. (Korean J Str Res 2010;18:51∼57)

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