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Volume 17(4); December 2009
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Original Articles
Effects of Personality Type and Organizational Personality Type on Job Stress and Psychological Well-being among Female Teachers
Gwiyeoroo Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):323-332.   Published online December 31, 2009
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These days, the entry of women in teaching professions is prominent. This study is subject to evaluate how female teachers' perception of their personality type and school constructions affects their job stress and psychological adaptation. There were total 166 participants who are teachersof secondary schools in southern Kyung-Ki area. Most participants perceive their personal type as ESFJ, while thinking that constructions of their schools are ISTJ type. There were only 16 people who had their personality type and school-construction type matched, which is 9.6% of whole population. 4.8% of the population had totally different types of perception. The study determines that people of introversion type have relatively high job stress while other psychological adaptation is not related to their level of stress. Sensing/intuition type people have no relation with job stress and psychological adaptation. People of thinking/emotion type have comparatively higher total point but show no difference in psychological adaptation. Lastly, for judgment/perception type, people have higher anxiety level. On one side, accordance of extrovert/introvert and emotion/thinking is proved to be the most influential factor in the process of adaptation. In conclusion, the study shows what these outcomes demonstrate and its limit. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:323∼332)
Effects of Stress Management Program on Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia in Community
Kuem-Sun Han*, Young-Hee Park*, Eun-Mi Lee*, Moon-Hye Bae&#;, Hyun-Chul Kang&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):333-340.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of stress management program on perceived stress, coping behavior and quality of life of the patients with chronic schizophrenia in community. This study employed nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. 36 participants were selected from the enrolled members of a community mental health center who were patients with chronic schizophrenia, and they divided into experimental group (19) and control group (17). Experimental group completed the stress management program that consisted of once a week 8 sessions program over 8-weeks period. Outcome indicated that significant differences are shown in perceived stress, coping behavior and quality of life between experimental group and control group. Finally, the stress management program have effective on increasing perceived stress, stress coping and quality of life with chronic schizophrenia in community. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:333∼340)
The Comparison of the Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics between the Institutionalized Children and the Control Children
Chung Soon Cho*, Hye Soon Baek*, Joo Soon Choi*, Youl Gun Oh&#;, Myung Ho Lim&#;, Hyun Woo Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):341-348.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The institutionalized children has been experienced emotional deprivation in early period, they could show the problematic emotional, behavioral characteristics. The authors studied the emotional/behavioral characteristics for 2 institutionalized elementary children's psychological evaluation by rating scale in a city. The DSM-IV clinical diagnosis applied by child psychiatrist. The psychiatrists and nurses evaluated institutionalized children by psychological evaluation by rating scale. Tools for the evaluation were Korean personality inventory for children, Kovac's children's depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory. Ultimately 64 institutionalized children, consisting of 26 boys (40.6%) and 38 girls (59.4%) and 138 normal control children participated. In the clinical evaluation between institutionalized children group and control group, institutionalized children were decreased ego strength, and increased hyperactivity, social withdrawal, autistic symptoms of KPI-C and trait anxiety of Spielberger Inventory. This result suggests that a lot of institutionalized children have complex emotional, behavioral, and attentional problems in addition to educational problems. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:341∼348)
Parenting Stress and Family Functioning of Urban Mothers with a Child Less than 3 Years of Age
Young Sook Park*, Mitsuko Kanzaki&#;, Yeon-Hwan Park*, Yunmi Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):349-357.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The aim of this study was to identify the parenting stress, the family functioning and their relationship in mothers with a child below 3 years. We recruited participants (n=251) who had a child less than 3 years of age and lived in urban area randomly in 2008. They completed questionnaire which constructed with Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (78 items) and Korean Family Functioning Scale (24 items). 85.3% of mothers were in nuclear family, 43.4% of mothers had full-time job. The mean score of parenting stress was 2.4 (moderate), and that of family functioning was 3.1 (moderate-high). There were statistically significant differences in the parenting stress by the employment status of mothers (p<.001), having helper except spouse (p<001). There were statistically significant differences in the family functioning by the age of mother (p<.05), the age of father (p<05). There was a moderate significant correlation between parenting stress and family functioning(r=−.36, p<0.001). Findings indicate significant correlation between family functioning and parenting stress and suggest possibility of reducing mother's parenting stress by family centered nursing interventions to strengthen family functioning. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:349∼357)
Stress and Migraine-Related Dizziness
Geun-Ho Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):359-367.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Migraine-related dizziness (MRD) refers to a disorder in which vestibular symptoms are an integral part of migraine symptomatology. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of subclinical balance dysfunction in migraine patients quantitatively and to define the pathophysiology of MRD better. Thirty-three patients with acute MRD were enrolled. Their scores on the measures of balance were compared with untreated age and sex matched migrainous patients without dizziness. The questionnaires for stress amount were asked to both groups. All the subjects underwent balance measurements that included vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. The spectral frequency analysis of body sway while standing upright was investigated. Sensory organization tests were done by computerized dynamic posturography. There was a significant increment in the level of stress at MRD group. MRD patients had reduced VEMP amplitudes compared to the controls. MRD group's center-of-pressure sway showed a significant increase in spectral power at high frequencies. Computerized dynamic posturography showed decreased vestibular ratio in the patients with MRD. These results suggest that stress may induce abnormal vestibulo-collic reflex and disequilibrium in MRD people. The pathogenesis of MRD is likely related to both peripheral and central vestibular structure disturbances. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:359∼367)
The Moderating Effect of Mindfulness and Dispositional Optimism on the Relation between Stress of Life and Depression
Kyung Park
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):369-378.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The present study was designed to evaluated the moderating effect of mindfulness and dispositional optimism on the relation between stress of life and depression. For this, a sample of under-graduate students (179 male students, 193 female students) completed Negative Life stress questionnaire, Korean Version of Five-factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, Life Orienting Test, Center for Epidemiologic Student Depression. Correlation analysis was tested to address the relation among negative stress of life, mindfulness, dispositional optimism, and depression. Hierarchical multi-variate regression analysis was also implemented for addressing the moderating effect of mindfulness and optimism on the relation between negative stress of life and depression. In the results about stress of life, both of stress for personal relations and stress on achievement showed significant positive relationship. In the test on the scale of five factor mindfulness, four factors except description had significant correlations with depression. Specifically interaction effect of stress of personal relations and dispositional optimism explains the variable depression with significance. This means that dispositional optimism acts as moderating variable on the relation between stress of personal relations and depression. Even though it was weak for interaction effect of stress of personal relations and mindfulness to interpret depression, the interaction effect was impressed as a role of moderating variable because of the high significance level of the effect. However, the moderating effect of mindfulness on the relation between stress of achievement and depression did not have significance. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:369∼378)
Influence of Life Stress and Ego-resilience on Subjective Well-being of College Students
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):379-387.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between life stress, ego-resilience, and subjective well-being, and examine the moderating effect of ego-resilience on the relationship between life stress and subjective well-being of college students in order to provide valuable information for improving quality of life of college students. The participants were 326 college students (183 females) living in Seoul and suburbs, whose ages ranged from 17 to 33, and average was 20.08 (SD=2.45). The various psychological tests were used to measure life stresses, ego-resilience, life satisfaction, subjective happiness, negative/positive emotion, life motivation, and life satisfaction expectancy. Life stress of college students were closely correlated with traditional variables of well-being. Ego-resilience accounted independently more variance of subjective well-being than life stress, and additional accountability of ego-resilience for variances of subjective well-being variables with life stress was significant as well. Although it was failed to find the moderating effect of ego-resilience on life stress and traditional variables of subjective well-being, whereas moderating effect of ego-resilience on life stress and life expectancy was found. Students in stressful circumstances had significant lower level of life expectancy than those in less stressful circumstance. But this was only for students with lower ego-resilience. The present study reiterates roles of life stress and ego-resilience on subjective well-being, suggests buffering effect of ego-resilience on relationship between life stress and life satisfaction expectancy. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:379∼387)
The Influences of School-related Stress, Conflicts with Parents, and Conflicts with Friends on Suicidal Ideation of Korean Adolescents: Centered on Gender Difference
Young Sook Park
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):389-398.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of school-related stress, conflicts with parents, and conflicts with friends on the suicidal ideation of Korean male and female adolescents. A total of 837 male and female enrolled students were selected from 6 high schools located in Gyunggi Province for the survey. The results are as follows. For male students, school-related stress ha as significant influence on the suicidal ideation while conflicts with parents did not and these two do not have any interaction effect. For female students, school-related stress and also conflicts with parents have an influence on suicidal ideation but these two do not have any interaction effect. For male students, conflicts with friends have a significant influence on suicidal ideation but there is no interaction effect between school-related stress and conflicts with friends. For female students, conflicts with friends have a significant influence on suicidal ideation and with higher rates of friend conflicts showed an higher increase in the rate of suicidal ideation than the group with a lower rate. This study implies that the tremendous school-related stress that high school students feel has a close relation with suicidal ideation and in addition, for female adolescents, both conflicts with parents and trouble with peer relationship are more significant risk factors in suicidal ideation. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:389∼398)
The Effects of the Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Skill Training on Depression and Interpersonal Relationships of the Depressed Children
Min Jeong Choi, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):399-406.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effects Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Skill Training on depressive level and interpersonal relationship dispositions in the depressed children. CDI (Children's Depression Inventory) and Interpersonal Relations Dispositions Scale were administered to 617 fourth and fifth grade children from the three different elementary schools in K city. They were selected among those subjects who get more than 20 points in CDI as a depression tendency children. And they assigned a treatment group and a control group for seeking the effects of the interpersonal cognitive problem-solving skill training. The treatment group had progressed 12 sessions interpersonal cognitive problem-solving skill training during 6 weeks (two times a week). The subjects were post-tested after the program and follow-up after 4 weeks later. The results were as follows: The treatment group indicated a significant difference in self-humiliation, depressive emotion, and social/friendly, flaunt/narcissism and positive dispositions. Finally, the results of this study was discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:399∼406)
Construction of the Structural Equation Model on Stress of Korean American Immigrants
Jeongyee Bae, Yoonjung Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):407-414.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to construct a structural equation model that will further explain the stress of Korean immigrants living in America. Survey visits using a structured questionnaire were conducted with 330 people in America. A total of 6 instruments were used in this model. The analysis of data was done with both SPSS 17.0 for descriptive statistics and AMOS 5.0 for covariance structure analysis. Based on the constructed model, immigration satisfaction, English expression level, and quality of life were found to have a significantly direct effects in influencing stress. In addition, other factors such as health status, family cohesion, and social support indirectly affect stress. The final modified model yielded Chi-square=22.12 (p<.001), ՗2/df=2.45, GFI=.98, AGFI=.94, NFI=.94, PNFI=.40, PGFI=.32, RMSEA=.07 and exhibited fit indices. This study constructed a model that addresses the factors related to Korean-American immigrants stress and explains the relationship. Findings of this study can contribute to designing an appropriate prevention strategy to further improve immigrants stress. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:407∼414)
Effects of Schizandrae fructus on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in Mouse BV2 Microglial Cells
Yun-Hee Sung*, Mal-Soon Shin*, Sang-Won Lee&#;, Chang-Ju Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):415-424.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Schizandrae fructus is a medicinal fruit that has long been used for the treatment of dyspnea, cough, mouth dryness, amnesia, and nocturnal emission. Several studies have reported the anti-asthmatic, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-oxidative, and anti-diabetic effects of Schizandrae fructus; however little is known about the mechanisms by which the anti-inflammatory of this herb. In this study, we evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of Schizandrae fructus on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in mouse BV2 microglial cells. To accomplish this, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) immunoassay, and nitric oxide (NO) detection were conducted. The results revealed that the aqueous extract of Schizandrae fructus suppressed PGE2 synthesis and NO production by inhibiting the LPS-stimulated enhancement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in mouse BV2 microglial cells. This extract also suppressed the expression of phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results demonstrate that Schizandrae fructus may exert anti-inflammatory, and that these effects are associated with the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS expressions via down-regulation of MAPKs. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:415∼424)
The Effects of Childhood Experience to Negative Emotional Expression on Adolescent Emotional Expression Conflict and Psychological Adjustment
Jisun Park
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):425-434.   Published online December 31, 2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of childhood experience on adolescent emotional expression conflict and psychological adjustment. In order to examine this, t test, correlation analysis, regression was administered. The Results of this study were as follows. First, there was a meaningful difference in the response of the primary caregiver on the supportive emotional expression of the childhood, in accord with the sex of the youth. Second, minimization responses (for the male high school student) and punitive responses (for the female high school student) had a significant effect upon the ambivalence of the emotional expression of the childhood. Third, both the male and female high school student was influenced by the non-supportive response of the primary caregiver, in terms of their negative emotional expression of the childhood, and especially by distress reactions of the primary caregiver. Fourth, the non-supportive response of the primary caregiver had effect on the internalization problem and externalization of the male high school students, and in particular, distress reactions of the primary caregiver had a significant effect on their adaptation; on the other hand, punitive response had an impact on the female students. But, unlike the male students, in the case of the female students, the response of primary caregiver who encouraged them to express and recognized their negative emotion played a part as a protective factor in their internalization problem. In addition, the emotionally oriented response of the primary caregiver had an effect on lessening the stress of adolescents. The implications and limitation of this study were discussed for future research were suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:425∼434)
Panax ginseng Attenuates MK-801-Induced Stereotypy in Mice
Sung Wook Kang*, Su Kang Kim*, Young Ock Kim&#;, Seon Woo Cha&#;, Joo-Ho Chung*
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):435-440.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder with lifetime prevalence on approximately 1% of the general population. After MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) treatment, stereotyped behavior in mice is significantly increased, and therefore this is widely used as an animal model for the study of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is known as a representative tonic for over 2,000 years in East countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ginseng on stereotyped behavior in MK-801-induced mice. We evaluated the stereotypy score in mice after single and repeated administration of MK-801 to examine acute and chronic responses. A total of 80 male mice were used for the acute and chronic session tests. Each session test was divided into 4 groups (10 mice/group), which were treated with saline (Control group), 400 mg/kg ginseng (Control+Ginseng group), 0.6 mg/kg MK-801 (MK801 group), and 0.6 mg/kg MK-801 and 400 mg/kg ginseng (MK801+Ginseng group), respectively. For the acute session test, mice were injected with a single dose of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg, i.p). For the chronic session test, mice were daily injected with MK-801 for consecutive 7 days. Ginseng (400 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 30 min before the MK-801 treatment. The results showed that stereotypy score was increased in the MK801 group of both the acute and chronic session tests, compared with the Control group. Ginseng reduced the score of MK-induced stereotypy in the chronic session test, but not in the acute session test. The present results might be related to the long-term effect of ginseng in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, including stereotyped behavior. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:435∼440)
Review Article
Stress Recovery through Exercise
Myung-Wha Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2009;17(4):441-447.   Published online December 31, 2009
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Exercise is method of functional stress. Therefore, exercising regularly can increase daily recovery of fatigue and quality of life. It also can provide joyful entertainment and prevent decrease of functional capacity from help active life style. Accordingly, exercising regularly and finding right exercise are required to relieve stress. In general, exercise includes warm-up, muscular strength, cardiovascular and cool-down exercises in order. Most common exercises are walking, jogging, ergometer and swimming. However, you must understand the correct ways to exercise, and find a right exercise program for yourself. In addition, mediation, massage, taichi and yoga are also good ways to relieve existing stress. Specially stress relief is not effective when exercising is done irregularly and hypokinetic. There is a high correlation coefficient between a stress and disease; therefore, correct understandings of obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and low back pain are required. Since it shows a close relationship between a severe stress and injury, decreasing stress to prevent injury is essential. Therefore, relieve stress through exercise can be very broad, but this paper attempts to describe a right exercise method to overcome the stress for modern human beings. (Korean J Str Res 2009;17:441∼447)

STRESS : STRESS