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Volume 16(4); December 2008
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Original Articles
The Processes of Coping with Breast Cancer Among Korean Women
Eunyoung E. Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):305-316.   Published online December 31, 2008
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More than 7,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in South Korea and many of them live long as cancer survivors. To date, no research has investigated Korean women's coping process with breast cancer. This study thus was aimed to explore and describe the processes of coping with breast cancer among Korea women using a grounded theory methodology. Seventeen women aged between 30 and 63 with breast cancer who underwent cancer treatment in a rural cancer hospital participated in an individual face-to-face interview. All interviews were conducted in Korean, tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to the grounded methodology. Open coding, axial coding, and theoretical sampling of the categories were proceeded in data analysis. The overriding theme was "accepting and enduring the transient suffering with a lowered mind." Two sub-themes were "clear one's mind of distraction and live unboundedly as water flows down," and "make up one's mind to accepting reality." The findings are mediated by Korean cultural concepts such as "lowering one's mind" and "enduring life-suffering." The findings highlight that a patient' successful coping with breast cancer mandates the care provider's culturally congruent awareness and understanding. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:305∼315)
A Study on the Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Social Workers in Social Service Agencies for the Elderly
Hong-Jik Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):317-324.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study aims to explore the factors that affect the job satisfaction of social workers in social service agencies for the elderly. Especially, it attempted to explore how the individual characteristics of the social workers and their work conditions affect their level of job satisfaction. The subjects of this study were 368 social workers who were selected from the survey of the 2006 Korean National Association of Social Workers-Gyeonggi chapter. The level of job satisfaction were measured by the 12-item questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha=.914). This study conducted descriptive statistics analyses and multiple regression analyses to explore the determinants of job satisfaction of social workers in social service agencies for the elderly. Sex, level of education among the individual traits and major task, working hour, job title, salary, infringe benefit among work conditions were statistically significant predictors to the level of the job satisfaction, while only task traits such as working hour, job title, and salary were still remained as statistically significant determinants in the total model. The result of this study shows that social workers who were female, less educated, working more, lower job hierarchy, and less paid had a lower level of job satisfaction than their counterparts. Therefore, more policy and program considerations should be took for them to improve their levels of job satisfaction and finally enable them to better serve the elderly in our society. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:317∼324)
Relationship of Sociocultural Attitude Towards Appearance, Body Esteem, Eating Attitude, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Female Adolescents
Seung-yeon Lee*, Young Sook Park&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):325-334.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study was to explore the relationships among sociocultural attitude towards appearance, body esteem, eating attitude, depression, and suicidal ideation in a community group of Korean female high school students (N=300). The results indicate that 1) The more sociocultural attitude toward appearance female adolescents perceive and internalize, the lower body esteem they have. And those females have more symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Above all, they have more distorted eating attitude (especially, in terms of dieting & bulimia). 2) Body esteem partially mediates sociocultural attitude toward appearance and eating attitude. 3) Eating attitude completely mediates sociocultural attitude toward appearance and depression or suicidal ideation. 4) Depression completely mediates eating attitude and suicidal ideation. 5) Body esteem moderates the relation between eating attitude and depression or suicidal ideation. This study suggests that for the evaluation and treatment of suicidal ideation of female high school students, it is important to examine their perception and internalization of sociocultural attitude towards appearance, body esteem, and distorted eating attitude and behaviors along with their depressive symptoms. Future study is necessary to replicate the findings using male adolescents or clinical samples. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:325∼333)
The Validity of P3 Used Concealed Information Test (CIT): Focused on Face Stimulus Recognition and Stimulus Familiarity
Hee-Song Kim*, Hyo-Taek Choi*, Hyoen-Gi Hong&#;, Ji-Hye Kim&#;, Myoung-Ho Hyun&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):335-342.   Published online December 31, 2008
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The CIT examines whether suspects possess knowledge about a particular crime, which they do not want to reveal. when suspect recognize the crime-related evidence, it si assumed that he/she will produce high physiological response. We investigated whether a P300 based Concealed Information Test (CIT) can detect concealed face recognition and the degree of stimulus familiarity (during exposed time) influence hits probability. Participants are assigned in two groups: those who are familiar with relevant face stimulus and those who are not. Individuals of the second group are divided into two groups again. An experimental group is exposed to relevant face stimulus during 10 seconds and a control group did not receive any stimulus. The results show that mean amplitude response of the relevant face stimulus is significantly over P300 mean in exposed group to relevant face stimulus (without reference to exposed period). However, there was a hits probability difference depending on relevant face exposure period. When exposure period was long, its hits probability was 20% higher compared to short exposure period condition. Besides, we compared a new designed P300 mean amplitude analysis with Rosenfeld's (2006) analysis method and, found that newly designed method showed higher hits probability than Rosenfeld's (2006) analysis. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:335∼342)
Types of Experience of Positive Affect and Negative Affect
Jung-Ho Kim*, Seong Kyeon Lim&#;, Sun-Joo Kim&#;, Jae Min You&#;, Kyung Hyun Suh&#;, Mirihae Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):343-350.   Published online December 31, 2008
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It is assumed that the higher one's levels of positive affect (PA) is and the lower one's levels of negative affect (NA) is, the higher one's subjective well-being (SWB) is. There are three traditional ways to integrate PA and NA levels: PA-NA, PA/NA and PA/(PA+NA). The present paper pointed out problems of these traditional formulae and proposed classifying experience of PA and NA into certain types as an alternative. Based on the combination of the levels PA and NA, four types of experience of PA and NA were suggested. The present research examined the relationship between the types of PA-and-NA experience and psychological characteristics which were life satisfaction motivation, satisfaction with life, life satisfaction expectancy, depression, anxiety, anger, self-esteem and subjective happiness. Among psychological characteristics, satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety and self-esteem showed significant correlation coefficients with the types of PA-and-NA experience as was predicted in the traditional methods of incorporating PA and NA. However, the rest of the psychological characteristics showed the relations with the types of PA-and-NA experience, which were not predicted by the traditional methods of incorporating PA and NA. We discussed the implications of these results and the direction of further research. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:343∼350)
Suicide Idea by Interpersonal Relation in Nurses
Youn-Jae Oh, Kuem-Sun Han, Eun-Sook Park, Young-Joo Park, Hyun-Cheol Kang*
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):351-356.   Published online December 31, 2008
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The purpose of this study was to examine the suicide ideation according to the types of interpersonal relation in nurses. The data were collected by questionnaires from 273 nurses in a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and pearson's correlation coefficients. The score of suicide ideation was significantly different according to types of interpersonal relation which were 'stable', 'denial', 'fear' in nurses. The result of study are discussed in terms of implications for suicide-prevention program and future research, particularly the importance of the interpersonal relation in nurses. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:351∼356)
Astaxanthin Suppresses H2O2-induced Apoptosis in H9c2 Cardiac Myoblast Cells
Yun Jeong Lim*, Sung Ki Lee&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):357-362.   Published online December 31, 2008
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Astaxanthin is one of carotenoids, which has powerful antioxidant activity and is found in many human foods. We investigated whether astaxanthin would prevent H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death of H9c2 myoblast cells. To examine the protective effects of astaxanthin, cytotoxicity assay, flowcytometric analysis, and Western blot analyses were performed. Treatment of H2O2 was shown to induce apoptosis in a dose dependent manner and astaxanthin attenuated the caspase-3 dependent apoptotic cell death in H9c2 myoblast cells. In Western blot analyses for cytochrome c release, astaxanthin suppressed the release of cytochrome c. These results suggest that the antiapoptotic effect of astaxanthin is associated with caspase-3 inhibition and inhibition of cytochrome c release into the cytosol. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:357∼362)
The Correlation between HRV and Questionnaires before and after Oral Test
Sun Yong Chung, Jong Woo Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):363-368.   Published online December 31, 2008
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To investigate the correlation between stress questionnaires and heart rate variability. 102 students that were in 4th grade at the college of oriental medicine Kyung Hee University in 2005. Before oral test, subjects were measured by HRV instrument. After oral test, they were asked to fill the questionnaires (STAXI, Stress Reaction Index, Symptom Checklist-90-Revision). After that, HRV remeasured. SDSD, RMSSD, HF are statistically increased and LF/HF ratio is statistically decreased after oral test. LF tends to be increased but not statistically. In the point of correlation, between LF before test and somatization of SCL-90-R, between LF/HF ratio before test and fatigue, total score of stress reaction index, there are inverse correlation. And between the LF/HF ratio difference of before and after test and somatization of stress reaction index, there is statistically static correlation. HRV before and after oral test reflects stress states, but the correlation between the questionnaires and HRV is weak. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:363∼367)
The Effect of Perceived Parental Problem Drinking on Children's Shopping Addiction
Ji-Sun Kim, Myoung-Ho Hyun, Eun-Mi Han, Hyun-Jun Won
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):369-378.   Published online December 31, 2008
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In these days, there are a lot of studies about the effect of perceived parental problem drinking on their children. Their dysfunctional dynamic influenced children's impulsive behaviors. In this study, we investigated the effect of perceived parental problem drinking on children's shopping addiction that is a kind of "Impulse control disorder". The result is the perceived parental problem drinking is correlated with children's shopping addiction, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and shopping addiction is correlated with ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and emotional intensity. Second, we analyzed the path through parental problem drinking to shopping addiction. In the path analysis, the mediation effect of ambivalence over emotional expressiveness is not significant. But we put the emotional intensity as moderate factor and we investigated again the path, in the higher emotional intensity group had significantly path. This finding allows better understanding on the perceived parental problem drinking and emotional intensity are interacted and then that interaction influence to children's shopping addiction. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:369∼377)
Diagnosis of Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder for North Korean Refugees
Sungho Hu, Young Jin Choi*, Taeyun Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):379-386.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study compared the C-PTSD scale developed by von der Kolk (2007) and a PTSD scale for North Korean refugees (or TSNKR). A sample of 145 North Korean refugees (59 male, 86 female) staying in Hanawon completed a questionnaires including C-PTSD scale and TSNKR. Results indicated that TSNKR is not predicted by factors such as anger, distrust, dissociation, and somatization of C-PTSD. and the factor of PTSD avoidance does not have quite a relationship with C-PTSD. It was proposed that the C-PTSD scale is more adequate to diagnosis post traumas stress disorder of North Korean Refugees. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:379∼386)
The Stress Factors of Schizophrenic People before Murder
Jong-Han Seo, Hyoung-Soo Lim*, Hyun-Wook Kang&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):387-392.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study was designed to analyze subjectively the issued twenty events which was happened in the past to find out perceived types and level of stress in schizophrenic people. The subjects were selected on the basis of psychiatric diagnosis and psychological tests. The open questionnaire was used to find perceived types of stress in schizophrenic people. The stress perceived in schizophrenic people were totally divided into nine the types such as conflicts with parents or family members, failure and frustration in occupation, not promoted, marital discords, unrealistic contents of thought, problem of interpersonal relationship, absence of stress, and lastly illness and readmission. Especially, the determinant stress happened before one week of murder was conflicts with parents or family members and failures and unrealistic contents of thought. Also the two stressors revealed the highest level of stress. Based on these results of fifteen cases, schizophrenic murders previously experienced a determinant stress triggering the murder and showed that conflict with parents or family members and failures and unrealistic contents of thought were main stress type and level. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:387∼392)
The Neurochemical Study on Antidepressant Effect of Nelumbinis Semen Extract
Ji Hyun Kim*, Kyu-Sop Lee&#;, Hye-Young Joung&#;, Hyun Soo Shim&#;, Hyunsu Bae&#;, Kyung Soo Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):393-400.   Published online December 31, 2008
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In the previous study, we examined that a variety of extracts of Nelumbinis semen (NS) have an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in the rat, which is widely used as a behavioral screening test for antidepressant activity of new compounds. Depression-like symptom in n-BuOH extract showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the immobility time and further fractionated n-BuOH with H2O and MeOH (3:7) fraction (NS37) was the most effective on the immobility time on FST. The purpose of the present study was to observe the neurochemical changes on the anti-depressant actions of unknown compounds in the NS37 extract by using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD). The results showed that the NS37-10 (10 mg/kg) has a significant increase of dopamine in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus and a significant decrease of dopamine turnover in hypothalamus and hippocampus. These neurochemical actions of NS37 extract could be responsible for the beneficial effect on depression. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:393∼400)
Family Caregivers' Stress and Physical Health with Demented Patients Using Day Care Center
Kyung-Im Chun, Young-Sook Kim, Kyung-Hyun Suh*
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):401-408.   Published online December 31, 2008
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The aims of this study was to investigate the effect of using day care center on stress and physical health of family caregivers of demented patients. One hundred ninety nine (24 males and 175 females) family caregivers of demented patients was 50s in their age. The employed survey instruments were Novak & Guest's Multidimensional Caregiver Burden Inventory, Chon's Physical Symptom Questionnaire, and Hahn & Jang's Perceived Health Inventory. The results showed that family caregivers who used day care center reported lower physical symptoms as well as time-dependant stresses, existential stresses, and service related stress than non-user. Caregivers' stresses were positively related to physical symptoms, while time-dependant stresses and existential stresses were negatively related to perceived health. The caregivers' stress was significant predictor of both physical symptoms and perceived health. The caregivers' stress, using day care center, and period of caring the patient accounted for 37% of variance of physical symptoms. And, the stress and physical health of family caregivers of demented patients and day care service were discussed with these results and previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:401∼408)
The Effects of the Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Game Addiction Level, Depression and Self-Control of the High School Students with Internet Game Addiction
Jeong Hwa Lee, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):409-418.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study was to investigate high school male students' game addiction tendency and to examine the effects of group cognitive behavioral therapy for high risk students with internet game addiction. In experimental study, of high risk 27 students of internet game addiction, 13 students agreed to participate in group cognitive behavioral therapy program and 14 students were participated in sport program as comparative group. The instrument used for evaluating the treatment efficacy were internet game addiction test, self-control scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-Korean version which were administered before and after the treatment. The results of this study were as followings: in cognitive behavioral program group, self-control was significantly increased and internet addiction level and depression and significantly were reduced. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:409∼417)
A Survey on Commercial High School Male Students' Internet Game Addiction Tendency
Jeong Hwa Lee, Chong Nak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(4):419-426.   Published online December 31, 2008
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This study was to investigate commercial high school male students' game addiction tendency. The investigation results of the game addiction tendency from 939 high school male students were as follows, the addiction degree tends to be higher to the lower school year students, the students wanting family's interest, the students who game using time is longer, the students who purpose for internet using was game, the students who his favorite kind of game is Role-Playing Games and degree of self- awakening of his game addiction is higher more addictive. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:419∼426)