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Volume 16(3); September 2008
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Original Articles
The Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Middle School Students with Social Anxiety
HyunYoung So, ChongNak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):181-190.   Published online September 30, 2008
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The purpose of this study investigates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on Middle school students with social anxiety. Cognitive reconstruction and Social skill training are included in this program according to early adolescents' cognitive development. Cognitive reconstruction is conducted to train changing negative automatic thinking to rational alternative thinking. Social skill components are 'praising', 'I-message' to deliever one's feeling and thought adequately. Eighteen middle school students with social anxiety were selected through Social anxiety scale for childhood and adolescents-Korean and Teacher observation report, and randomly assigned cognitive-behavioral group (n=9) and waiting-list control group (n=9). Assumption is more reduction of social anxiety by cognitive behavioral therapy compared to waiting list control group. Social anxiety is reduced by cognitive behavioral therapy. Finally, The implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future study were also discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:181∼189)
The Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Heart Rate Variability in a Rural Area
Jung Woo Ahn*, Chang Woo Han*, Bo Yul Choi&#;, Yu Mi Kim&#;, Jung Hyun Nam*, Joonho Choi*, Seok Hyeon Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):191-198.   Published online September 30, 2008
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between HRV (heart rate variability) and depressive symptoms in general population. This study was designed to examine the correlation of HRV and depressive symptom in general rural population. Methods: In 155 participants lived in the anonymous rural area of Gyeonggi-do, Korea, they participated in health promotion program with short term electrode HRV test and BDI (Beck's depression inventory) self-report. Two participants were excluded due to fail to make out BDI and 58 participants were excluded because of some kinds of heart problems which were found after electrocardiogram and echocardiography exam of the health promotion program. We analyze HRV and BDI of remaining 95 subjects. Results: Our results showed that SDNN (standard deviation of the normal to normal interval), total power (TP), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) had negative correlation with BDI score, but only pNN50 (the proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50 ms by the total number of normal to normal intervals) had positive correlation with BDI score. Also HF, LF and RMSSD (the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals) are decreased by BDI severity grades increasing. Conclusion: In this findings of our study, some HRV variables seem to reflect subclinical depressive symptom severity in general rural population. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:191∼197)
Gender Differences in Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Panic Disorder Treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Sunhea Lee*, Yangsuk Kim*, Dong Hoon Oh*, Hwallip Bae*, Seok Hyeon Kim*, Jooyeon Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):199-206.   Published online September 30, 2008
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This study examined gender differences in anxiety sensitivity in patient with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia that were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty nine outpatients (men 28, women 31) with DSM-IV confirmed panic disorder completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) at baseline and after 12 week CBT. Women scored significantly higher than men in total ASI score and Mental Incapacitation Concern subscale score at baseline. And no significant gender differences were found in Physical Concern subscale score and Social Concern subscale score at baseline. This study also compared total ASI score and each subscale scores between baseline and post-treatment. Although total ASI score and each subscale scores decreased significantly in both sexes, no significant gender differences were founded. After CBT, women scored significantly higher than men on Mental Incapacitation Concern subscale and Social Concern subscale. But no significant gender differences were found in total ASI score and Physical Concern subscale score. This finding that women scored high Mental Incapacitation Concern subscale score both at baseline and after CBT and supports previous finding that Mental Incapacitation subscale can be associated with gender differences in pathogenesis and prognosis of panic disorder. Total ASI score, Physical Concern subscale score and decrease of anxiety sensitivity after treatment do not seem to be associated with gender differences in pathogenesis and prognosis of panic disorder directly. Further discussion is needed about Social Concern subscale. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:199∼205)
Difference in Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentration according to Degree of Stress
Mi Hee Kong*&#;, Kwang Min Kim&#;, Sat Byul Park&#;, Bom Taeck Kim&#;, Nam Seok Joo&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):207-212.   Published online September 30, 2008
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Purpose: Stress by activation the hypothalamic-pituiraty-adrenal axis causes the release cortisol. Increased cortisol secretion is associated with low levels of growth hormone concentrations. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production is stimulated by growth hormone. We hypothesize that stress may be associated with IGF-1 levels. Methods: We assessed circulating levels of IGF-1 in 2,371 individuals (Men 1,460, Women 911) who coming at health promotion center. Stress score was measure by Modified-Korean BEPSI self reported questionnaire. Results: In young men, IGF-1 level of high stress group was significantly decreased than lower stress group. This significance was remained after multivariable adjusted. But, young women and elderly groups had not significant difference of IGF-1 level according to the low stress or high stress. Conclusion: The IGF-1 level of high stress group was decreased than low stress group. But, this significant difference was showed in only young men. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:207∼211)
Relationship between the Characteristics of Mothers' Personality and Maternal Responsive Interaction with Children
Mi-sook Yun, Su-mi Song, Tae-yun Jung
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):213-224.   Published online September 30, 2008
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The study is aimed at determining how the reliability of the results of the maternal responsive interaction on children is affected according to the results of MMPI for the mothers. It is also intented to investigate whether differs in K-MBRS between two groups(high and low level) according to MMPI T-Scores. The subjects of this study were 77 mothers whose the Child Guidance Clinics in Seoul from September 2003 until March 2008. To collect the data, mothers were administered with MMPI and mother-child dyads were videotaped for approximately 20 minutes of their interaction in a play-therapy room of the Child Guidance Clinics. Videotaped observation was using to assess the mother-child interaction with K-MBRS. The data were analyzed with Pearson Correlation and ANOVA. The results of study are as follows. First, The Ego-strength scale of MMPI showed significantly positive correlation in sensitivity, responsivity, enjoyment, warmth, praise, effectiveness, and expressiveness of K-MBRS. Second, the level of K-MBRS subscales showed differently according to T-score of MMPI subscales. Especially effectiveness of K-MBRS was affected according to the level of MMPI T-Scores. It is shown that the characteristics of the mothers' personality have effects on the maternal responsive interaction on children. These results imply that helping mothers to understand personality and behavioral characteristics of themselves and to have higher ego-strength is important to enhance the parental style for the promoting the developmental well-being of children and reduce the parenting stress. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:213∼223)
The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Exhaustion in the Police
Young Ju Son, Young A Song, Eun Young Choi
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):225-232.   Published online September 30, 2008
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and exhaustion in police officers, and to offer basic data used to reduce mental stress. The subjects of this study were 315 police officers. The data were collected from structured questionnaire, and were collected from November 9 to November 30, 2007. The results were summarized as follows; The mean score for occupational stress was 2.42 and exhaustion was 2.60. The relationship between occupational stress and exhaustion revealed a positive significant correlation (r=.589, p=.000). Exhaustion showed significant positive correlations with physical environment (r=.278, p=.000), job need (r=.534, p=.000), relationship conflict (r=.222, p=.001), job instability (r=.218, p=.000), organized system (r=.355, p=.000), inadequate compensation (r=.470, p=.000), and job culture (r=.370, p=.000). The implications of this study included that stress control program, the best way of influencing stress reduction, should be developed and provided it for them to prevent occupational stress and to manage inevitable stress in tpolice officers. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:225∼231)
A Study of the Attitudes toward Depression in General Population
Hyun-Ju Cho*, Hyeon-Woo Yim*, Myoung-Ho Hyun&#;, Sun-Jin Jo*, Yu-Na Ji*, Tae-Youn Jun&#;, Myeung-Hee Bang&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):233-240.   Published online September 30, 2008
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This study examined the concepts of depression in oder to develop the depression attitude questionnaire in adult. The participants of study were 26 adults who agreed with our study among the stratified clustered random sampling. Based on ground theory, the data from transcribed interviews were analyzed by using open coding. The result of this study presented the concepts of depression which composed of the knowledge of depression and the attitude of depression. Finally, we were separate the concepts of depression into two questionnaires. The questionnaire for knowledges of depression was composed of the cause, symptoms, and treatment of depression. Most of participants were understood the symptoms of depression well but considered the cause of it to psychological factor, and depression are not genuine disease. The attitudes toward depression were compose of emotional distance, stigma, familism, personal weakness. Participants have a negative emotion to depressive patients and have stigma to them, but they have responsibility to their family member who have depression. We expect that result of the study will be a base upon the development of psychometric tool for depression attitude. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:233∼240)
Female Teacher's Job Stress/Reward Factors and Their Relationship with Psychological Well-being
Gwi-Yeo-Roo Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):241-250.   Published online September 30, 2008
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The primary purpose of this study is to identify married female teachers' job stress factors and assess the effects of married female teachers' job stress and reward on their psychological well-being. Participants were 326 female teachers of Kyeonggi Province. Factor analysis showed 7 job stress factors. They are authoritative administration, low income, overload, conflict, loss of authority, class management and guidance of students. These factors were demonstrated to show some part of married female teachers job stress (about 50.5% of job stress). Married female teachers' job stress is significantly related with psychological well-being and physical symptoms. Married female teachers' job reward showed interaction of job stress with depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms. The findings by this study demonstrate married female teachers' psychological well-being reflects a combination of job stress and job reward. In the future we should articulate female teachers' Job stress questionnaire on the result of this study. And future research should include behavioral index as a dependent variable. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:241∼249)
The Relations of Child Rearing Attitudes to Stress and Coping of College Students
Yoo-Jeoung Kim*, Soo-Dong Choi*, Seong-Min Kim&#;, Kyung-Hyun Suh*
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):251-260.   Published online September 30, 2008
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This study aims to investigate the relations of parents' child rearing attitudes to stress and coping of college students. The participants were 421 college students (186 males and 235 females), whose ages ranged from 18 to 30 (M=20.57, SD=2.05). The instruments utilized in the present study were Korean version of Parker's Parental Bonding Instrument, the Life Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Coping Scale. Correlational analysis revealed that perceived parents' child rearing attitudes were associated with stress in interpersonal relationships with family, friends, lovers, and faculties. Parents' child rearing attitudes were correlated with male students' concern about future as well as children's value related stress. Regression analysis revealed that fathers' child rearing attitudes accounted for around 23% variance of life stress for males and 11% for female, while mothers' child rearing attitudes accounted for around 26% variance of life stress for males and 13% for female. Parents' intrusion was positively correlated with active forgetting, self-restraint, obstinacy, concession renunciation, and self-critique, while parents' warmth and autonomy granting toward children were positively correlated with active coping, emotional quiet, and positive interpretation. And the suggestion for future studies and the possible influence of child rearing attitudes to stress and coping of college students were discussed with this results and previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:251∼259)
Factors of Stress Responses and Quality of Life among Stroke Patients' Family Caregivers: Focused on ADL and Social Supports
Young-Ok Gwak*, Young-Sook Kim*, Kyung-Hyun Suh&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):261-270.   Published online September 30, 2008
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This study aims to examine the relations of the activity of daily living of stroke survivers and social supports toward family caregivers to the stress response and the subjective well-being of family caregivers. The participants were 167 (26 males and 141 females) family caregivers of stroke survivers, whose ages ranged from 23 to 84 (M=54.36, SD=13.87). The instruments utilized in the present study were Koh's Stress Response Scale, Korean version of Cambell's Scale for Subjective Well-being, and Barthel Index. Result indicated that family caregivers with male patients showed more severe stress responses and lower level of subjective well-being than those with female patients. Family caregivers who received more social supports were less likely to show stress responses and higher level of subjective well-being even though adjusted by the gender and age of patients. All kinds of social supports which were given to family caregivers were closely related to their subjective well-being, and especially family caregivers' fatigue and depression were closely related to social supports. By the activity of daily living of stroke survivers, there was no significant differences in the stress response and the subjective well-being of family caregivers. And the suggestion for future studies and the possible influence of social supports to the stress response and quality of life of family caregivers with stroke survivers were discussed with these results and previous studies. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:261∼269)
The Relationship Among Children's Perceived Parent-child Communication, Ego-Resilience and Conflict Resolution Strategies in Children's Friendship
Young Su Chang, Young Sook Park
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):271-280.   Published online September 30, 2008
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This study attempts to identify the factors which have an influence on the conflict resolution strategies a child employs with his/her peers by focusing on the relationship between a child's conflict resolution strategy and parent-child communication as well as ego-resilience. This study analyzed 557 sixth graders from elementary schools in Seoul and Incheon. The scales of measurement used were parent-child communication scale (Barnes & Olson, 1982), ego-resilience scale (Block & Kremen, 1996), and child's conflict resolution strategies scale (Bae, 2000). The results of this study are as follows; 1) Girls seemed to engage in more open communication with their mothers than boys and the boys were inclined to use dominating strategies more frequently than girls. 2) The result of correlations analysis showed positive correlation between open communication with parents and ego-resilience, and negative correlation between problem communication with parents and ego-resilience. Open communication with parents was positively correlated with compromising-integration strategies while ego-resilience showed positive correlation with compromising- integration strategies, avoiding strategies, and dominating strategies. 3) The results of multiple regression analysis showed that compromising-integration strategies are influenced by ego-resilience, open communication with parents, and problem communication with fathers. Avoiding strategies are influenced by ego-resilience, and open communication with fathers. Obliging strategies are influenced by problem communication with fathers, ego-resilience, and open communication with fathers. Dominating strategies are influenced by ego-resilience, open communication with fathers, and problem communication with parents. Concluding from these observations, ego-resilience and open communication with fathers seem to be highly correlated with conflict resolution strategies a child could employ. In addition, ego-resilience seems to have more influence on the conflict resolution strategies than parent-child communication. Also, communication with fathers seemed more influential compared to communication with mothers. Therefore, additional attention should be paid to the children in order to allow them opportunities to develop ego-resilience and intensive educational courses should be offered to the parents to encourage open communication with their children. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:271∼280)
Review Articles
The Biology of Positive Psychology
Eun-Ho Kang*, Joo-Eon Park&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae&#;, Young Min Park&#;, Sam-Wook Choi&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):281-286.   Published online September 30, 2008
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Most modern researches have focused on the underlying biological mechanisms as the basis of various psychopathology such as psychosis, depression, anxiety, etc. However, little is known about the biological basis of positive psychology. Recent developments in biological and neuroscientific techniques enable us to speculate that there are also biological basis in the field of positive psychology. The author introduces some important researches on the biological basis of positive psychology. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:281∼285)
Mind-body Integrative Approaches in Nursing
Sungjae Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):287-294.   Published online September 30, 2008
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간호학은 인간 존재전체를 포괄적으로 돌봄과 치유의 대상으로 간주하는 인간학의 한 분야(Edwards, 2001)이다. 인간을 대상으로 하는 간호학은 존재론적인 측면에서는 일원론적이며 총체주의적으로 인간을 이해하여왔다. 특히 건강영역에서 활동해온 간호는 인간이 지닌 질병보다는 질병을 가진 인간에 초점을 두고, 정신적 신체적인 요인과 환경적인 요인과의 상호작용의 결과의 틀 속에서 돌봄을 실천해왔다. 간호이론들이 언급하고 있는 간호의 본질이 '누군가를 위해 그곳에 있어주는 것', '함께 있는 것', '자신을 치료적으로 사용하는 것', '의식의 확장을 촉진하는 것', '전인적인 돌봄'(Rodgers, 2005)임을 볼 때, 간호수행의 초점이 신체나 정신이 아닌 인간존재 전체를 대상으로 함을 알 수 있다. 본고에서는 간호학의 토대를 이루는 인간에 대한 철학적 배경과 간호의 기본개념 고찰을 통해서 정신과 신체에 통합적으로 접근하는 간호학적 관점을 조망하고자 한다. 더불어 최근의 간호연구에서 많이 다루고 있는 암환자를 위한 보완대체간호를 통해서 정신신체통합에서의 간호학적 접근양상을 살펴보기로 한다. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:287∼294)
The Past, the Present and the Future of Positive Therapy and Its Application to Stress Management
Sam-Wook Choi*, Young Min Park&#;, Joo-Eon Park&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae&#;, Eun-Ho Kang&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(3):295-302.   Published online September 30, 2008
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Positive psychology emphasizes the need to understand the positive aspect of human experience, as well as understanding and ameliorating psychopathology and distress. Positive therapy explores the relevance of positive psychology to therapy. In this article, we reviewed the fundamental assumptions of positive psychology and therapy, and its possibility of the application to stress management. We summarized a variety of current positive therapies that share the same fundamental assumptions of positive psychology. Additionally, we mentioned the pitfalls and future of positive therapy. Finally, we suggested the need for further clinical evidence of positive therapy in stress management and various health care settings. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:295∼303)