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Volume 16(2); June 2008
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Original Articles
A Relation between Big Five Personality Traits using NEO Children Personality Test and Stress Coping Styles in Elementary School Students
Ok Hee Kim, Hyun-nie Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):69-78.   Published online June 30, 2008
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the Big Five personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and stress coping styles (active, passive, aggressive, avoidant or social support seeking) in elementary school students. NEO Personality Assessment System and Daily Hassles Coping Scale were administered to 326 fourth, fifth and sixth graders (male 158, female 168) who consented to the study. Factor analysis results showed that five coping styles were categorized into Factor 1(active, avoidant, social support seeking) and Factor 2(passive, aggressive). Neuroticism positively correlated with passive and aggressive coping styles which were included in the factor 2, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness significantly correlated with active and social support seeking ones which were classified into the factor 1, and Openness correlated positively with both factor 2 and a part of factor 1 (avoidant). Additional discriminant analysis was conducted to discover that children high in Neuroticism primarily used the passive and aggressive stress coping behaviors, while children high in Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness preferred to use active, avoidant, and social support seeking. Such results indicate that children of elementary school age show different stress coping behaviors from adults according to their Big Five personality traits. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:69∼77)
Relationship between Academic Stress and Mindfulness in Test-anxiety
Eun-Young Lee, Yang-Ri Park, Myoung-Ho Hyun
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):79-84.   Published online June 30, 2008
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and mindfulness in test-anxiety for adolescents. 289 middle school students completed academic stress questionnaire, mindfulness questionnaire, and test-anxiety inventory. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that academic stress and mindfulness affected test-anxiety. But the interaction effect of academic stress and mindfulness on test-anxiety was not significant. Only the interaction effect of achievement stress and mindfulness on test-anxiety was significant. In other words, good mindfulness experienced less test-anxiety whether occur or not achievement stress, but poor mindfulness experienced more test-anxiety when achievement stress. Finally, clinical implications and limitations of this study were discussed with comments for further studies. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:79∼84)
Association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphisms and Korean Patients with Schizophrenia
Ah Rang Cho*, Yong Ho Kim&#;, Bum Shik Kim&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):85-92.   Published online June 30, 2008
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High levels of homocysteine promote oxidative stress, and aberrant homocysteine metabolism is linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. The present study was conducted to examine the association between the MTHFR gene and schizophrenia in Korean population. Subjects of 279 patients with schizophrenia and 296 healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs2274976 and rs1801133) using the Illumina Sentrix Array Matrix chip and direct sequencing. The rs2274976 (Arg594Gln) is located on exon 12 of the MTHFR gene region, and the rs1801133 (Ala222Val) located on exon 5. For the analysis of genetic data, SNPStats, Haploview, HapAnalyzer, SNPAnalyzer, and Helixtree programs were used. Multiple logistic regression analysis (codominant, dominant, and recessive models) was also used. Patients with schizophrenia were evaluated according to clinical manifestations using the Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT). Two SNPs (rs2274976 and rs1801133) were not associated with schizophrenia. However, one SNP showed a significant association with one phenotype of psychotic symptoms. Running commanding voices, which could be clinically considered serious feature of auditory hallucinations, was different in the recessive model (p=0.018; p=0.036 after Bonferroni correction). Recently, rs59514310 replaces rs1801133 as new number (SNP database, BUILD 129). In present study, a significant association was observed between rs1801133 and running commanding voices. The result suggests that the MTHFR gene may be a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia with auditory hallucination. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:85∼91)
Association of Glutathione-S-Transferase M1/T1 Gene Polymorphism in Korean Osteoarthritis Patients
Dae Jung Choi*, Yong Ho Kim&#;, Bum Shik Kim&#;, Sung-Vin Yim*
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):93-98.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Recent reports have been suggested the association between osteoarthritis and genetic polymorphism. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) plays an important role in the detoxification of carcinogen, chemical toxins, and other harmful materials in the body. To investigate the possible association between osteoarthritis and GST gene polymorphism, 111 Korean osteoarthritis patients and 537 Korean healthy control subjects were evaluated. All studies were carried out according to the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from each subject. The polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The distribution of GSTM1 polymorphism between osteoarthritis patients and controls was significantly different [՗2 = 7.9605, p=0.0045, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals)=1.8154 (1.1954∼2.7570)]. The distribution of GSTT1 polymorphism was also significantly different between two groups [՗2=10.1853, p=0.0014, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals)=1.9816 (1.2957∼3.0306)]. In the combined analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, the frequency of both null type of GSTM1/T1 genes was significantly different from both positive type of GSTM1/T1 genes [՗2=7.6575, p=0.0057, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) =2.1685 (1.1796∼3.9865)]. These results indicate that the polymorphisms of GST gene may be a susceptibility factor in the development of osteoarthritis in Korean population. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:93∼98)
The Antidepressant Effect of Nelumbinis semen on Forced Swimming Test in the Rat
Kyu-Sop Lee, Chong-Woon Cho*, Moonkyu Kang*, Hyunsu Bae&#;, Kyung-Soo Kim, Insop Shim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):99-106.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Depression is a major mood disorder, characterized by depressed mood, feeling of worthlessness and disturbed appetite. Nelumbinis semen (NS), lotus seed, has been widely used in Korean traditional medicine as a remedy for insomnia, anxiety, and women's depression following post-menstrual-pause. We recently found NS to have an anti-depressant effect on chronic mild stress-induced depression-like symptom in the rat. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of NS extracs on depression-like symptom in the forced swimming test (FST) in the rat, which is widely used as a behavioral screening test for antidepressant activity of new compounds. We prepared five extracts using water, ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, n-hexane and ethanol as solvents. When animals treated with each extract were executed on FST, n-butyl alcohol extract showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the immobility time. We further fractionated n-buthyl alcohol into five feactions with different mixture of water and methanol, and the 3:7 (water:methanol) fraction was the most effective on the immobility time on FST. In further study, unknown compounds in this fraction and neural mechanisms underlying their anti-depressant actions should be examined. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:99∼106)
Review Articles
Happiness and Positive Psychology in Mental Health
Joo-Eon Park*, Eun-Ho Kang&#;, Young Min Park&#;, Sam-Wook Choi&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):107-114.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Happiology and positive psychology have come in the public spotlight as well as the medical attention in several years. The authors review a framework, including current concepts and brief histories, in the pursuit of happiness and the development of positive psychology. We also summarize the known determinant factors of happiness or wellbeing. Until now, happiness as a goal of positive psychology appear to be determined by 3 major factors, such as not only a setpoint and some environments, but also individual efforts to achieve the happiness. Numerous evidences have been showed that various intentional activities as a good tool of positive psychology may help attempts to promote and maintain happiness and reduce mental illness, although investigations for implications in the clinical and social-institutional contexts should be continued. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:107∼114)
Effect of Gratitude and Application of Gratitude Technique
Young-Min Park*, Sam-Wook Choi&#;, Eun-Ho Kang&#;, Joo-Eon Park&#;, Jeong-Ho Chae&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):115-122.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Gratitude manifests itself in several forms with distinct psychological properties. The common forms of gratitue experience could be structured into three hierarchical levels of analysis: gratitude as affective traits, gratitude as a mood, and gratitude as an emotion. Research has shown that gratitude is a pleasant state and is linked with positive emotions including contentment, happiness, pride, and hope. In addition, gratitude is related to physical health and pain reduction. Dispositional gratitude is related to but distinct from trait measures of positive affect, vatality, optimism, envy, depression, and anxiety. Although gratitude overlaps with other positive feelings, it also possesses a unique pattern of appraisals that distinguishes it from happiness. Further researches on gratitude are needed in future. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:115∼122)
The Effects of Happiness on Health
Jung-Ho Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):123-142.   Published online June 30, 2008
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The Perspective of Body and Mind from the Sasang Constitutional Medicine -Respect to Psychological Type Theory by C.G. Jung-
Dal-Rae Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):143-150.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Stress and Immunity
Kyung Bong Koh
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):151-160.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Heart Rate Variability in Stressful Events and Mental Disorder
Won Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):161-166.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Updates in Applications and Effects of the Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):167-174.   Published online June 30, 2008
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Stress produces changes in the sympathetic nerve system increasing muscle tension as well as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, adrenaline secretion and sweating, and leading to various stress-related diseases. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) has been most frequently used technique of relaxation interventions to control stress responses. PMR training is a process of deliberately tensing and then relaxing oneself in order to learn to notice the difference between the two states. Various previous studies found the effectiveness of PMR on stress-related diseases. Some studies that failed to find the effectiveness of PMR illustrated the importance of application skills of it. It is also important to know that people who learn to relax do not lose motivation and productivity. Clinicians may consider apply PMR with other therapeutic techniques. In this article, the guideline for clinical application of PMR was suggested, and clinician's own modified practices were encouraged. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:167∼173)
Stretching for Relax of Body and Mind
Myung-wha Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2008;16(2):175-179.   Published online June 30, 2008
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스트레칭은 관절의 움직임을 증진시키며 혈액순환과 운동수행능력을 향상시켜 자세와 외모를 좋게 향상시킬 뿐만 아니라 심리적으로 불안감을 낮추고 스트레스를 경감시켜 활력을 불어 넣어 자신감을 갖도록 한다. 이를 위해서는 여러 종목의 스트레칭운동 방법이 있으므로 이를 위해서는 올바른 방법을 이해하고 규칙적인 운동이 요구 된다. 스트레칭 체조 종목에는 정적스트레칭, 동적스트레칭, 수동적 스트레칭, 능동적 스트레칭과 고유수용성신경근촉진법 등이 있다. 반동을 이용하여 펴는 동적 스트레칭 체조와 반동을 이용하지 않고 가동영역 내에서 몸을 신전시키는 정적 스트레칭 체조가 대표적인 방법이지만 자신은 능동적이지 않으면서 수동적 으로 관절의 가동영역을 증진 시키는 움직임을 수동적 스트레칭과 자신의 힘만으로 관절의 가동범위를 증진 시키는 능동적 방법이 있다. 또한 고유수용성 신경근 촉진법은 수축-이완기법과 수축 이완 주동근 수축 기법을 이용하여 관절질환이나 손상으로 인하여 재활에 필요한 활용가치가 매우 높다. 또한 스트레칭에 필요한 보조기구 선택에 대하여 기술하였다. 이에 따라 몸과 마음의 이완을 위한 방법은 매우 광범위하지만 운동 종목의 하나인 스트레칭에 대하여 생리적 이해와 정확한 운동방법을 논술하여 현대인이 스트레스를 극복하는 데 기여하고자 한다. (Korean J Str Res 2008;16:175∼180)

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