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Volume 15(3); September 2007
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Original Articles
A Study on Flight Attendants' Emotional Labor and Emotional Stability on Their Psychological Burnout
Chi Min Lee* and Jee Young Lee&#;
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):149-155.   Published online September 30, 2007
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To determine the effects of flight attendants' emotional labor and emotional stability on their psychological burnout, we sampled 255 flight attendants for a questionnaire survey. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, as a result of analyzing each scale depending on flight attendants' demographic variables, it was found that their psychological burnout differed significantly depending on such demographic variables as sex, age, career length, working position and monthly working time. Their emotional labor differed significantly depending on their sex, career length and age. And their emotional stability differed significantly depending on their age, working position, career length and monthly working time. Second, emotional stability was negatively correlated with psychological burnout, and such sub-variables of psychological burnout as "emotional exhaustion", "impersonalization" and "lack of accomplishment" were negatively correlated with emotional stability. Third, a sub-variable of psychological burnout as "emotional exhaustion" was correlated positively with emotional labor. Fourth, the variable affecting psychological burnout most was found emotional stability, followed by monthly working time and age. In conclusion, for increasing the productivity of airline industry some considerations must be given to airline employee's physical and psychological well-beings, and lastly the implications for the future research of burnout antecedents in airline were also discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:149∼155)
Developing Comprehensive Stress Management Program through Education and Awareness: Focusing Emotional Experience and the Coping Strategy among Normal Women
Kyenghee Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):157-162.   Published online September 30, 2007
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This study aims to develop comprehensive stress management program which is focusing education and awareness about general aspects of stress. And additionally aim of this study is to verify the effects of the stress management program on the emotional experience and coping strategy among normal women. This program consists with 5 sessions which include education and workshop. Each session takes about 2 and half hours. After taking the program most participants experience general improvement positive emotion and decrease in depressive symptoms. And they report improved understanding in stress, decrease in distress experience, effective coping to the stress, and general positive influence due to participation in the program. The limitations and suggestions of the study are discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:157∼162)
Analysis of Stress Level of Korean by Heart Rate Variability Measurement
Daeseok Han, Nara Jeong, Dong-Woo Kim*, Young Eon Kim, and Chang Ho Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):163-169.   Published online September 30, 2007
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In this study, we investigated the analysis of stress level of Korean people on heart rate variability (HRV) in 20∼50 age adults. Stress levels of 238 layman in Korea were analyzed by measuring HRV with autonomic balance analyzer. Parameters of time domain and frequency domain analyses were generally in a normal range. This is an apparent result, since each parameter value is an average of all volunteers who are normal, under stress and in good state. Stress of individual obtained from the data of autonomic balance report showed that 69 persons (29%) were in bad state, 33 persons (14%) were in a border of normal and stressed out, and 136 persons were normal. Considering that stress is uncomfortable, and in some cases, it may lead to diseases like hypochondria, it is not the second to none to find a solution to stress reduction. Authors recommend our society to invest more effort and research activity on stress reduction. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:163∼169)
The Effect of a Cigarette Smoking on Smokers' Stress
Daeseok Han, Min-Kyung Ko, Dong-Woo Kim*, In-Ho Kim and Young-Eon Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):171-176.   Published online September 30, 2007
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This study aims to observe the effect of a cigarette smoking on smokers' stress. The subjects were male smokers in age from twenties to fifties. Their levels of stress were examined by an autonomic nervous balance analyzer (SA-3000P). This instrument analyzes heart rate variability by time and frequency domain analyses, and reports activity and balance of autonomic system. In the experiment, stress levels of volunteers were examined before and after smoking a cigarette. Analysis of stress indices showed a decrease in SDNN parameter (standard deviation of N-N interval) and an increase in PSI (physical stress index) with significant difference in time domain analysis. The LF/HF (low frequency/high frequency) ratio increased significantly in frequency domain analysis. In addition, direct diagnostic reading report showed that smoking of even a cigarette decreased autonomic activity and heart stability, and increased autonomic nerve balance and mean heart rate. These results were significantly different (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study supported that smoking of even a cigarette increased the stress of male volunteers. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:171∼176)
Review Articles
Newer Paradigm in Psychiatry Implicating Positive Psychology and Happiology
Jeong-Ho Chae
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):177-186.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Although psychology had at least three original aims of treating pathology, fulfilling individual and the thriving community, the classical psychology and psychiatry had paid exclusive attention to psychopathology, such as repairing the worst things in life. In the aspect of health, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." In more recent years, this statement has been modified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life." Thus the field of psychology and psychiatry had been criticized as primarily dedicated to addressing mental illness rather than mental "wellness". After the introduction of positive psychology, which is the scientific study ofoptimal human functioning, the paradigm for psychology and psychiatry have started to be changed. The aim of positive psychology is to begin to catalyze a change in the focus of psychology from preoccupation only with to also building positive qualities. A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. This paper reviews a framework of positive psychology and happiology to implicating in mental health. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:177∼186)
Happiness: Scientific Outline
Joo-Eon Park
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):187-197.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Happiness is the most important goals of life in many persons. This article provides current concepts of happiness, and summarizes the determinant and promoting factors of it. The terms, including happiness and the interchangeable expressions of it, and the happiness-related words drawing on scientific studies performed until now, were used for mainly Pubmed, PsycINFO, or EBSCOhost search. Psychological findings were primarily discussed, with supplementing socio-economic theory, on the basis of searched references. Happiness is of several meanings according to socio-economic and psychologic approaches. Cross-cultural differences of happiness are also found in the areas both meanings and conditions. Finally, considering the past researches on happiness, sustainable happiness seems to be determined by 3 major factors, such as a setpoint, some environments, and intentional activities related to the happiness promotion. Studies and discussions for establishing the more scientific concepts should be continued. There have been, however, increasing evidence that various interventions, including behavioral, cognitive, and volitional activity, may help attempt to promote and maintain happiness. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:187∼197)
Hope or Optimism as a Characteristic Factor in Positive Psychology
Won Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):199-204.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Nowadays, positive psychology has been an interesting topic among general population as well as mental health professionals. Positive characteristic factors or characteristic strengths such as love, courage, hope or creativity, are important in researches on positive psychology, although these have been remained in fields of religion or philosophy. Therefore we reviewed one of the important positive characters, hope or optimism, in the aspect of concept and research outcome. Hope, optimism and future- mindedness have many similar perspectives, but, have been somewhat differently used. For research and application, more efforts should be made in order to define the concepts of hope or optimism psychologically. There were some studies about correlations between hope and positive results of specific health problems. Another important topic is that optimism is better than 'just not pessimism'. We expect that these efforts on positive psychology will provide mental health promotions in research and therapeutic applications for social mental health as well as individuals. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:199∼204)
Self-esteem and Positive Psychology
Kyeong-Sook Choi
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):205-214.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Self-esteem is a widely used concept in many fields and social science and it refers to general feelings of self-worth or self-value. Self-esteem is one of the top three covariates in personality and social psychology research, along with gender and negative affectivity. Researches have shown that there is indeed a strong correlation between happiness and self-esteem, and self-esteem has held a significant place in positive psychology. The definitions of self-esteem vary and there are several types of self-esteem. Among many forms of self-esteem, authentic self-esteem and it's implications for well-being or for living the good life has been interested in positive psychology. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:205∼214)
The Conception of Gratitude and the Relation between the Gratitude and the Positive Psychology
Young Min Park
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):215-219.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Gratitude manifests itself in several forms with distinct psychological properties. The common forms of gratitue experience could be structured into three hierarchical levels of analysis: gratitude as affective traits, gratitude as a mood, and gratitude as an emotion. Research has shown that gratitude is a pleasant state and is linked with positive emotions including contentment, happiness, pride, and hope. Dispositional gratitude is related to but distinct from trait measures of positive affect, vitality, optimism, envy, depression, and anxiety. Although gratitude overlaps with other positive feelings, it also possesses a unique pattern of appraisals that distinguishes it from happiness. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:215∼219)
Positive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Heritability
Eun-Ho Kang
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):221-225.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Recent developments in neuroscience and genetics have suggested that there are biological bases in the field of positive psychology as well as pathology-oriented psychology and neuropsychiatry. However, psychologists, psychiatrists, and scientists have little knowledges of the biological process by which happiness, well-being, optimism, positive individual traits make people endure stress and enjoy better life. The author provides an outline of neuroscientific and genetic researches on the elements of positive psychology. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:221∼225)
Positive Therapy: Positive Psychology in Clinical Practice
Sam-Wook Choi
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):227-234.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Since World War II, psychology and psychiatry have concentrated on the repair of mental damage using a disease model of human functioning. This exclusive attention to psychopathology neglects fully functioning individuals and their positive features that make their lives worth living. In this article, the author aims at presenting general principles and fundamental assumptions of positive psychology and therapy. The author then summarizes a variety of positive therapies that share the same fundamental assumptions of positive psychology. Additionally, the author discusses the pitfalls and future of positive therapy in a health care setting. Finally, the author suggests the understanding of integrative view of negative and positive features of human beings and the need for further clinical evidence and application in various health care settings. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:227∼234)
Usefulness of Defensive Pessimism
Seung-Mi Choi and Jong-Min Woo
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):235-244.   Published online September 30, 2007
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Today, positive psychology and optimism are taken as the spirit of times. But the push for the positive attitudes without considering uniqueness of individual and cultural diversity will be another 'tyranny'. The authors review defensive pessimism, which is a alternative and supplemental concept for positive psychology and optimism. They focus on differences and usefulness between defensive pessimism and strategic optimism, evaluation and therapeutic implications. And they emphasize that we must have great caution for introducing and applying therapeutic concepts into this country and hope to be developed Korean therapeutic model. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:235∼244)
Current Trends and Tasks of Positive Psychology
Jong-Min Woo and Seung-Mi Choi
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(3):245-254.   Published online September 30, 2007
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The authors review the development and current trends in positive psychology. Especially, the authors suggest that the focus of psychiatry and psychology has to be changed from cure of illness to improvement of positive mental health. And psychological intervention (Positive psychotherapy: PPT) created by Seligman is introduced as an effective tool to increase individual happiness. Finally, the authors set the tasks of positive psychology in academic and social-institutional contexts. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15: 245∼254)

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