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Volume 15(1); March 2007
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Review Articles
The Effect of Cognitive Control of Emotion on Physiological Arousal and Emotional Memory
Sang Hee Kim and Stephan Hamann
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):1-8.   Published online March 31, 2007
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Individuals often try to regulate their emotions in order to adaptively behave in society. We investigated the effect of cognitive emotion regulation on emotional arousal and subsequent episodic memory. We hypothesized that cognitive effort to up- or down-regulate negative emotions would result in elevated or lowered physiological arousal, respectively. Because physiological arousal plays a critical role in memory processes, we also hypothesized that elevated or lowered arousal following up- or down-regulation of emotion would be associated with enhanced or reduced episodic memory. To test these hypotheses, eighteen women viewed emotionally negative and neutral pictures while they tried to either enhance or decrease emotional reactions elicited by the pictures, or to naturally view the pictures. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured concurrently. Memory for the pictures was assessed with a free-recall test. Results showed that enhancing negative emotion resulted in greater physiological arousal compared to decreasing negative emotion. Enhancing negative emotions marginally increased memory for the negative pictures compared to decreasing negative emotions. When the effects of increasing or decreasing negative emotion were compared with those of naturally viewing emotion, however, the effects were not statistically significant. These findings provide partial support to the claim that cognitive regulation of emotional states may alter both immediate emotional reactions to emotional events and subsequent memory for these events. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:1∼8)
Synergistic μ-opioid and 5-HT1A Receptor-mediated Activation of G-protein-gated Inwardly Rectifying K Current in Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neurons
Seung-Ho Han
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):9-15.   Published online March 31, 2007
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The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is considered one of the important anatomical regions for pain modulation in the central nervous system (CNS). In acutely dissociated rat PAG neurons, the electrophysiological properties and action mechanisms of 5-HT1A agonist and μ-opioid agonist-induced activation of the inwardly rectifying K current using the nystatin-perforated patch-clamp recording modes under voltage-clamp conditions. Serotonin and D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO)- induced activated inward K currents at a concentration-dependent manner. The postsynaptic serotonergic effect was mimicked by a specific 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-Hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT). These opioidergic and serotonergic activation of inward K current employed the similar intracellular mechanism of 4-aminopyridine (AP)-sensitive K channels via GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). Co-application of 1μM DAMGO with 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT produced significant enhancement of inward K current. In conclusion, activation of postsynaptic μ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors synergistically increased the inward K current. These results suggest a cellular mechanism within PAG for the analgesic effectiveness of combined therapies using opioids in conjuction with 5-HT1A. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:9∼15)
Depression, Self-efficacy, Life Satisfaction and Coping Behaviors of University Students
Kwang-Hi Park and Yang-Sook Hah*
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):17-25.   Published online March 31, 2007
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among depression, self-efficacy, life satisfaction and stress coping behaviors of university students. The survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 787 university students. The questionnaire consisted of each variables on this study. Collected data were analysed by using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results are as followed. 23.2% of students had depression. Female students had significantly high depression, low life satisfaction and self-efficacy. Negative emotion-focused coping in depressed people and problem-focused coping in not depressed people were used significantly more. These results suggest that strengthening problem focused coping and developing constructive emotional coping are needed in intervening depression. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:17∼25)
Classification of Adolescents' Experiences from Excessive Internet Game - Use in Cyber Counseling -
Jee Young Lee and Yang Sook Hah
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):27-34.   Published online March 31, 2007
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To classify adolescents' experiences from excessive internet game use in cyber counseling, we reviewed statements by adolescent on the selected two web sites. All statements were classified into 3 categories according to the main themes; (a) motivations of excessive internet game use (b) negative influences of excessive internet game use (c) psychological difficulties from excessive internet game use. Gratification from virtual relationship, projection of fantasy need, attachment with cyber-self, satisfaction from achievement and recognition were included in motivation category as inducement factors. School work burden and stresses, relationship problems, negative affections were also included in motivation category as avoidance factors. Disturbances in daily life, disturbances in reality distinction, withdrawal symptoms and tolerance to internet game, cognitive and emotional changes, deviated behaviors were included in negative influence category. Self aversion and self-depreciation, guilty feelings were included in psychological difficulty category. Our study will be useful for understanding adolescents' experiences from excessive internet game use and also provide significant information to mental health program for adolescents who use internet game excessively. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:27∼34)
The Stress Response and Coping of Psychiatric Nurses
Hee-Jeong Kim*, Sook-Bin Im† and Young-Shin Song*
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):35-42.   Published online March 31, 2007
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The purpose of this study was to investigate stress response and coping of psychiatric nurses. The data were collected by self-reported questionnaire, stress response scale and multi-dimensional coping scale and analyzed t-test and ANOVA, etc. The subjects were 150 nurses who worked at the psychiatric unit in the university hospital or mental hospital. The overall stress response of the psychiatric nurses were low; however, the nurse who were young, single, and working at university hospital were sensitive to stress response. Among the subscales, the score of 'frustration' was highest and that of 'aggression' was lowest. And the psychiatric nurses mainly used the effective problem solving coping for stress and nurses' coping were enhanced with the increase of age, education and career levels. 'emotional pacification' got the highest score among the subscales. Therefore, the development of stress management program considering personal characteristics was needed for the psychiatric nurses. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:35∼42)
The Effect of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction-Korea on Anxiety and Aggression: in the University Student
Kyung-Woo Kim and Hyoun-Kab Chang
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):43-49.   Published online March 31, 2007
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Mindfulness-Based Reduction-Korea (MBSR-K) program is used in this study. This program is consisted of various meditative techniques and has frequently been used in medical settings with mixed patients. This study examined the effectiveness of 6-week MBSR program on the university students' anxiety and aggression. Seventy seven undergraduate students participated in the present study. Thirty five of these students who wanted to learn the meditation were selected for the intervention group and the remaining forty two were served as non-intervention control group. After finishing 6-week MBSR program, the experimental subject, when compared with the control group, showed significantly greater changes in term of reductions in trait-anxiety and physical aggression, linguistic aggression, anger and hostility. The research suggests that 6-week MBSR program appears to be a promising program to improve psychological symptoms in the university students. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:43∼49)
The Effect of Yuk-Ja-Gyeol Qigong Training on Stress and Psychological Symptoms in Middle School Girls
Hwajin Lee*,†, Younbyoung Chae*,†, Dae-Hyun Hahm†, Hi-Joon Park*,† and Hyejung Lee*,†
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):51-57.   Published online March 31, 2007
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Yuk-Ja-Gyeol(六字訣) is a Qi-gong, used a lot for curing stress as a regimen in Oriental medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Yuk-Ja-Gyeol training on stress and psychological symptoms among middle school girls. Twenty-nine subjects were trained Yuk-Ja-Gyeol twice a week for 8 weeks. Stress assessment index of subjects was compared before and after each training using Stress-Experience-Level-Test (SELT). Psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms were also evaluated before and after each training using Symptom Check List-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). The study-related stress subscale of the SELT was significantly decreased after Yuk-Ja-Gyeol training (21.5⁑0.81 vs 19.62⁑0.94, p<0.05). The obsessive-compulsive subscale of the SCL-90-R was significantly attenuated after Yuk-Ja-Gyeol training (11.77⁑1.26 vs 9.73⁑1.26, p<0.05). The stress index and psychosomatic symptoms of the middle school girls were improved by Yuk-Ja-Gyeol training. These findings indicate that Yuk-Ja-Gyeol training might play an important role in treating stress-related disorders in adolescents. (Korean J Str Res 2007; 15:51∼57)
The Influence of Adolescent's Academic Self-efficacy and Stress Coping Style on the School Life
Won Jae Rho, Yoon Yang and Young Sook Park
Korean J Str Res. 2007;15(1):59-66.   Published online March 31, 2007
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This study was performed to investigate how effectively adolescents' school life could be explained by the variables of academic self-efficacy and stress coping styles. Correlations among the students' school life, academic self-efficacy and stress coping styles were investigated. Canonical correlation analysis as well as multiple regression analysis was performed in order to search the relationships among the sub-classes of three variables such as academic self-efficacy, stress coping styles and students' school life. The 408 high school students of 12 class (266 in 1st grade, 142 in 2nd grade, 71 in male, 337 in female) registered in one high school in Seoul and four high school in Kyung-gi province were surveyed for this study. The followings are the summary of the main results for this study. First, both academic self-efficacy and stress coping styles were significant in explaining the students' school life. However, the academic self-efficacy (32.5 %) influenced more significantly to the students' school life than stress coping styles (7.5%) did. Second, cannonical correlation analysis showed that the students, who have high self-restrained efficacy and prefer the difficult project and actively cope with stress in the way of problem-oriented style and pursuit for the social resources, are significantly effective to school class or adaptive to teacher-student relationship in the students' school life. Throughout the study, active stress coping style was shown to be significantly correlated with academic self-efficacy which was significant to students' school life. In terms of this observation, active stress coping based on the problem-oriented style may improve the students' school life by way of the enhancement of academic self-efficacy. (Korean J Str Res 2007;15:59∼66)

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