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Volume 14(2); June 2006
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Review Articles
Psychosocial Stress Models in Rodents
Daesoo Kim* and Hee-Sup Shin
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):49-52.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Conventional animal models of stress including immobility or electrical foot shocks are far from real life. As psychosocial diseases are increasing in human, animal models for reflecting phycosocial stress have been focus and developed. Establishement of phsychosocial stress models using mouse, where transgenic technologies and inbred strains are available, allows us to study moelcular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of stress. This paper is a review of the phychosocial stress models including social isoaltion, social defeat, and innate fear model in mice. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:49∼51)
Stress Assessment: Body Fluid Measurement
Kyung-Soo Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):53-56.   Published online May 27, 2006
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The accurate "measurement" of stress is one of the most important issues in stress research, and could be of great value in clinical medicine. The biological model of stress measurement is derived from the well-established biochemical and physiological effects of stressors: namely, autonomic system activation (particularly, activation of the sympathetic-adrenal medullary [SAM] system), and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Developing reliable biochemical indicators for stress with good validity, reliability and specificity is a major challenge in the field of stress medicine. In this context, I will focus on substances in the body which are influenced by mental stress and accessible to detection in body fluids. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:53∼56)
Pshchophysiological Assessment : Psychophysiological Stress Profiles
Whan-Seok Choi, M.D., Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):57-62.   Published online May 27, 2006
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스트레스는 그 자체뿐 아니라 이로 인한 다양한 증상과 질병을 유발함으로써 현대 의학에서 차지하는 중요성이 점차 증가하고 있다. 인간의 스트레스 반응은 자신을 지키기 위한 생리적으로 강력한 보호 기전이다. "투쟁-회피 반응(The fight-or-flight response)"이라고 불리는 다면적인 생리적 반응이 지나치게 강렬하거나 오래 지속될 때, 이는 신체적 증상을 일으키고 다양한 건강 문제를 야기한다. 정신생리적 평가(psychophysiological assessment)는 인체 내에서 일어나는 스트레스와 스트레스 반응의 특징의 윤곽(profile)을 알아내는데 유용한 도구이다. 그러나 평가의 세부 사항에 대한 강조, 동일한 과정, 도구의 선택, 표준의 기술이나 일반적으로 적용할 수 있는 기준이 없다. 이에 임상에서 정신생리학적 스트레스 프로파일(psychophysiological stress proflie)에 대한 전반적인 사항을 알아보고자 하였다. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:57∼62)
Questionnaire Methods for Measuring Stress
Cheol Hwan Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):63-68.   Published online May 27, 2006
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The questionnaires among variable methods assessing stress are used in practice widespreadly. The questionnaires were developed for measuring the stressor (stimulus), stress response (cognitive function and the results) the psychosomatic disorders (disease, symptoms and signs). In this seminar, I will introduce mainly the questionnaire instruments developed for evaluating stress response and cognitive function to the stressor. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:63∼68)
Hypertension and Stress
Byung Sung Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):69-76.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Hypertension is defined as blood pressure of 140 mmHg and above in systolic or 90 mmHg and above in diastolic on two or more occasions. 95% of hypertension is of unknown origin and is called as essential hypertension. However, environment and renin are known as predisposing factors to raise blood pressure. Stress is one of the environmental factors to hypertension. Blood pressure response is different among individuals and is increased when somebody is confronted by aggressive stimulus, so communication stress can increase blood pressure. With the family history of hypertension, arithmetic test made increase the blood pressure response. Stroop color-word test increased blood pressure and contributed to the occurrence of coronary artery disease. For hypertensive patients forearm vascular resistance is higher in those with more vascular damage. The higher the blood pressure response after exercise, the higher the probability of hypertension in the future, and it was due to the increase of cardiac output by the sympathetic stimulation. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease by the psychological stress can be modulated in three levels; congnitive- emotional level, hypothalamus-brain stem level, and pheripheral organ level. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:69∼76)
Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Ho Cheol Shin
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):77-84.   Published online May 27, 2006
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신체의 여러 부위에서 만성적인 통증을 호소하는 사람들이 많이 있다. 주치의들은 원인을 확인할 수 없는 경우에 이런 만성적인 통증을 호소하는 환자들의 진단을 흔히 정신신체 증상으로 결론을 내리는 경우가 흔하다. 이런 환자들의 일부에게 섬유근통 증후군으로 진단하는 경우가 많다. 섬유근통 증후군은 만성 통증, 피로 증상 등이 주요 증상으로 나타나지만 현재까지도 그 원인과 치료에 대해서는 정확하게 알려져 있지 않은 질환이다. 그렇지만 스트레스가 원인과 임상적인 경과에서 매우 중요한 역할을 할 것이라는 주장은 여러 연구들에서 뒷받침되고 있다. 따라서 섬유근통 증후군의 치료에서 스트레스 관리는 매우 중요한 부분을 차지하고 포괄적인 치료 전략의 중요한 축으로 인식되어야 한다. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:77∼84)
Stress and Derpession
Na-young Kim, Jong-min Woo
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):85-90.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Stress plays a major role in various (patho)physiological process associated with depressive disorders. Stress has the potency to exert either ameliorating or detrimental effects. The specific outcome depends on multiple variables. However, the amount of stress experienced in relation to activated physiological processes that aim at successful coping and positive adjustments most often is overwhelming and may thus become detrimental in the long-term. The hippocampal-hypothalamopituitary- adrenal axis is sensitive to stress, and its involvement may play a significant role in the course of stress-related depressive disorders. Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are important for treatment of stress-related depressive disorders. And coping skill and stress management teaching are also important in treatment of stress-related depressive disorders. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:85∼89)
The Stress Related Sexual Dysfuncion and New PDE5I, Udenafil
Churl-Min Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):91-98.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Diagnosis and Treatment of Headache
Yeong-In Kim, M.D., Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):99-106.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Understanding the Stress Related to Interpersonal Relationship and the Strategies for Intervention
Sook-Bin Im
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):107-114.   Published online May 27, 2006
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This study is conducted to understand the stress related to the interpersonal relationship and identify the strategies for intervention through the literature review. The stressors were culture-bounded. So the unique socio-cultural characteristics, such as relationship oriented, 'we-consciousness' centered, and 'Jung relationship' were deliberately considered in Korea. The stressors included unsatisfied basic social needs, misunderstanding, mistrust or loss of trust, depression, and individual's intrinsic factors. The strategies also should be derived considering cultural characteristics. Awareness of stress, thought stopping, refuting irrational beliefs, self-cultivating activities that can enhance one's power of self-control, and use of embodied relaxation technique were identified as the strategies for intervention. Furthermore, many culture-specific interventions and researches should be suggested. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:107∼114)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Eating Disorders - Focused on Program in Real Practice
Young Ho Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):115-128.   Published online May 27, 2006
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A specific form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa and is widely accepted as the treatment of choice. In this review, the theoretical model underpinning the CBT is first described. Then, the treatment program which is based upon the treatment manuals used in the University of North Dakota Eating Disorders Institute is presented. Finally, several consideration points of the research on the CBT of bulimia nervosa are also discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:115∼128)
Clinical Application of Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):129-138.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Stress is so much a part of our daily experience that we fail to notice its harmful effects. Physical effects of stress include tight muscles, rapid and shallow breathing, increased blood pressure and heart rate, adrenaline secretion and sweating. At the highest stress levels we might be dysfunctional as the excess tension is channeled into symptoms of stress-related disorders. Relaxation simply means doing nothing with muscles. But, it is important to know that people who learn to relax do not lose motivation and productivity. Jacobson became to know muscle tension produce various kinds of diseases and this might reflect the increasing pace of life, and he developed a technique for muscle relaxation, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). The key to effective relaxation is to learn to recognize the level of stress we are experiencing at any given moment. To be able to do this it is necessary that we become very relaxed and then notice the difference between the relaxed and tense state. Hence, Progressive muscle relaxation training is a process of deliberately tensing and then relaxing oneself in order to learn to notice the difference between the two states. Tensing and relaxing muscles helps a person to increase the awareness of body's muscular response to stress. Here is the guideline for clinical application of PMR and a example of practice of it. But, you can develop the practice on your own. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:129∼137)
Is Korea Burning Out? - the Autogenic Training as the Proper Solution
Jyoo-Hi Rhee M.D., C.P.
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(2):139-158.   Published online May 27, 2006
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Korea is a highly stressed nation. The current features indicate that the nation possibly already began to suffer under burn-out syndrome. It is causing concern that the society is not seriously alarmed and seizes no corresponding measures. I would recommand the autogenic training as the most proper solution to cope with stress problems. The autogenic training was developed by the German physician and psychotherapist Dr. Johannes H. Schultz in the 1920's. Now the AT is the best recognized relaxation technique in whole Germany and the further German speaking areas. The AT is in Germany a standard, regular, and orthodox medical measure which is completely honored through the health insurance under the category 'Coping with Stress and Preventing Illness'. This social and national networking of the AT took place in the 1970's and 1980's where the shadow site of "the wonder of the Rhine" was becoming visible. How is it about "the wonder of Han River"? Are there glorius sunny facets only? The korean people need deep consolation and relaxation. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:139∼159)

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