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Volume 14(1); March 2006
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Review Article
Enneagram: Understanding Personality Types
Hyang Joo Song and Dong Goo Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):1-8.   Published online March 31, 2006
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The Enneagram is a term that comes from Greek; ennea, for the word nine and grammos, for the word figure. Thus, it is a nine-pointed diagram. The Enneagram is a psychological system that classifies and explains human personalities. All human personalities belong to one of the personality types according to the Enneagram. Each personality type is useful in identifying one's inner landscape and in understanding oneself. The Enneagram is a map of one's present state. Understanding personality allows one to know how to overcome various obstacles in his or her life, although it may not provide all the answers. Understanding personality is a philosophical catalyst that helps gain insight and wisdom, in order to make the correct choice at any moment in life. One of the most wonderful characteristics of the Enneagram is that it can be a map that points beyond personality. People are restrained by their personalities. Fortunately, there is a key, called the Enneagram. By becoming aware of one's presence, one can acknowledge the lock on his or her personality. The Enneagram can lead one to the spiritual world, when one transcends his or her ego. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:1∼7)
Original Articles
The Effect of the Stress Coping Style and Parenting Stress on the Subjective Well-being in Mothers with Mentally Retarded Children
Miha Kim and ChongNak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):9-16.   Published online March 31, 2006
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The purpose of this study was intended to investigate the impact of the stress coping style and parenting stress on the subjective well-being in mothers with mentally retarded children. One hundred and fifteen mothers with mentally retarded children were studied using a questionnaire package, composed of questionnaire on resources and stress-F (QRS-F), the ways of coping checklist, satisfaction with life scale (SWLS), and positive and negative affect scale (PANAS). And self reports of the subjects were statistically analyzed with the method of hierarchical multiple regression. The stress coping style predicted 23.3% of satisfaction with life and the parenting stress was 10.9%. The stress coping style predicted 17.3% of the positive affect and the parenting stress was 1%. And the stress coping style predicted 7.5% of the negative affect and the parenting stress was 7.6%. These findings suggest the stress coping style and parenting stress have significant effects on the subjective well-being of mothers with the mentally retarded children. Implications and limitations of this study were also discussed. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:9∼16)
An Effect of Kwan on the Test Stress and Anxiety of the University Students
Joohyun Kim*, Yong Hwan Kim and Youngwoo Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):17-22.   Published online March 31, 2006
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Many students have stress and anxiety over examination and these psychological factors generally attenuate human immune system. If we want to live healthy, we need to have a good intervention technique to control the stress. In these days, many people are interested in Buddhistic meditation techniques. Kwan, which is one of them, is observing inner-side of mind of me and others together. The practicioner who did Kwan for students of experimental group were lay persons and trained Kwan for 10 weeks in Hanmaum Zen Center. In this study, the effect of Kwan on mind controlling of the stress and anxiety was investigated. The subjects of this study were 17 for experimental group and 17 for control group. The instruments measuring stress, trait and state anxiety and A type character were used for data collection. We also collected the physiological data such as: blood pressure, pulse, body temperature, serum cortisol, ACTH and lymphocyte count. The data were analyzed with SPSS PC⁢ program, using percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test as the analysis criteria. The results of this study were as follows: 1. There was no significant differences of pre-test variables (stress, trait & state anxiety, a type character & trait & physiological data) between experimental group and control group. 2. The post-test means of state anxiety, ACTH, cortisol of experimental group were lower than control group, but there were no significant differences. The lymphocytes of treated subjects were higher than control group, but there were no significant differences. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:17∼22)
The Relationships between Adaptive Perfectionism, Maladaptive Perfectionism and Self- esteem, Daily Hassles, Rumination, Depression
HyunJeong Kim and ChongNak Son
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):23-32.   Published online March 31, 2006
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This study was to investigate the relationships between adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive perfectionism and self-esteem, daily hassles, rumination, depression. A sample of 306 undergradute students completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Daily Hassles Scale, the Responses to Depressed Mood Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory. The results showed that standards were positively correlated with self-esteem, daily hassles whereas discrepancy was positively correlated with daily hassles, rumination, depression and negatively correlated with self-esteem. The cluster analysis yielded adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists. Maladaptive perfectionists appear to have lower self-esteem and to experience greater daily hassles, rumination, depression than either adaptive perfectionists or non-perfectionists. The present findings support the utility of the adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism construct. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:23 ∼31)
The Aftereffects of Torture of North Korean Refugees Settled in South Korea
Juna Byun, Namok Jung and Yanggyeong Yoo
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):33-40.   Published online March 31, 2006
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The study was conducted to investigate aftereffects of torture on North Korean refugees in South Korea. The aftereffects of torture checklist (Torture: the Grave of Human Rights, written by KRCT, Hangyeorae Publishing: Seoul, 2004) were employed. The checklist was originally derived from the Istanbul Protocol 1999. All participants surveyed reported torture experience. All participants were suffering from physical and psychological aftereffects of torture. Seventy percents were from socioeconomic and 63% were from familial aftereffects of torture. The mean number of aftereffects was 28.9 (14.8 physical, 11.8 psychological, and 1.7 socioeconomic, and 0.6 familial). The most frequent chronic physical aftereffect was digestive problems (stomach ulcer, hepatitis, loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation) followed by musculoskeletal disorders. The most frequent chronic psychological aftereffect was emotional disorder (nightmares, hopelessness, evasion, repeated experience of torture, neurosis, panic attacks, severe anxiety, depression) followed by cognitive disorders. The most frequent aftereffects of socioeconomic aftereffects was unemployment related to illness and disability, lack of job skills, difficulty in establishing social relationships, difficulty in communication, and maladjustment to South Korean society. The most frequent aftereffect of family was children problems followed by disintegration of family, and inability to maintain marriage life. These consequences seriously jeopardize the resettlement and the integration of North Korean refugees in South Korea. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:33∼40)
The Relationship between Married Female Tearchers Work and Family and Psychological Distress
Gwi-Yeo-Roo Ahn
Korean J Str Res. 2006;14(1):41-46.   Published online March 31, 2006
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The aim of this study is to assess the effect of married female teachers' work and family on their mental health. Marrage and work is regarded as an important factor to predict married female's mental health. So we investigate married female teachers' job stressors and reinforcers. At the same time we investigate married female teachers' marrage stressors and reinforcers. Participants were 118 married female teachers. Significant relationship was found between reward from marrage and mental health. And perceived quality of job and marrage is significantly related with mental health, too. So we can conclude that we should consider the reinforcer variable in the future stress research. The discussion addressed implications of the findings for future research and clinical practice. (Korean J Str Res 2006;14:41∼47)

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