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Volume 12(4); December 2004
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Review Article
Stress and Sleep
Se-won Lim, Leen Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):1-8.   Published online December 30, 2004
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Stress is the one of the well known major causes of sleep disturbance, especially insomnia. Various type of life events, sleep environment and cognitive expectancies could be sleep disturbing stressors. Increased release of catecholamines from the autonomic nervous system and cortisol from the adrenal cortex by stress enhance arousal and result in sleep fragmentation. Hypnotics for treatment of transient insomnia caused by stress should be used for a short period. Stimulus control, sleep hygiene, sleep restriction, and relaxation therapies are important for treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia. Coping skill and stress management techniques are also important in treatment of stress-related sleep disturbances.
Original Articles
A Sex Differences on the Maturity of Defense Mechanisms among Age Groups
Young Sook Park, Chun Young-Min
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):9-20.   Published online December 30, 2004
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of usage of varying defense mechanisms by males and females in various age groups. The subjects of this study consisted of 629 males and 691 females. The average age of the subjects was 32.44. Ewha Defense Mechanims Test (EDMT) was used as the measurement scale. According to the results, female subjects used more strongly projection, denial, identification, somatization, regression, show-off and displacement than male subjects while the males subjects used actively defenses of controlling, altruism and humor. By age, the younger subjects used more strongly identification, regression, show-off, reaction formation, dissociation, passive-aggressive behavior, projection, displacement, sublimation and humor than old subjects while the older subjects were prone to use more strongly denial, somatization, evasion, rationalization, suppression, anticipation and altruism. This results indicates that defense mechanisms used by old groups constantly adapting to address the different types of pressures and conflicts that a person may encounter at different ages and suggests the differences of adaptational styles in males and females. These results indicate that the defense mechanisms a person adopts throughout his/her life becomes progressively mature with age but evasive and passive at the same time. The differences in the progression of defense mechanisms between male and female with regard to age suggests that the psychological adaptation between the sexes has the different features.
Naloxone Suppresses Exercise-induced Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rats Hypothalamus
Myoung-Hwa Lee*, Jin-Kook Park, Eun-Kyung Kim, Chang-Ju Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):21-28.   Published online December 30, 2004
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No abstract available
Effect of Ginseng Radix on Cell Proliferation in Dentate Gyrus of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Jin-Kook Park*, Baek-Vin Lim*, Chang-Ju Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):29-38.   Published online December 30, 2004
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No abstract available
Subjective Fatigue and Stress Hormone Level in Urine according to Duration of Shiftwork
Yunjeong Yi*, Mina Ha, Jungsun Park
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):39-48.   Published online December 30, 2004
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The purpose of this study was to find out the associations between urinary catecholamines and cortisols and subjective complaints of fatigue in shiftworkers. We conducted a field survey of 113 male shiftwork subjects who were working at a manufacturing company in South Korea from late October to late November in 1999. The shiftwork system in the company was the backward rapidly rotating 4-crew 3-shift(morning session starts at 7:30 AM). we examined (1) self-report questionnaire (demographic characteristics, past medical history and working hours), (2) subjective complaints of fatigue in 3 categories of questionnaire (I, II, III) and (3) levels of norepinephrine(NE), epinephrine(EP), dopamin(DP) and creatinine in urine collected for 2 hours during each shift. The average age of workers was 29 years (range 25∼44) and the mean period of shiftwork was 1,857 days(range 163∼3,484 days). we compared subjective complaints of fatigue with hormone levels in urine in the two groups, one group with less 5 years mean shiftwork period and the other group with more than or equal to 5 years mean shiftwork period with age controlled. In workers with short shiftwork period(less than 5 years mean shiftwork period), significant association was found (1) between subjective complaints of fatigue Iand EP, and DP in morning session, (2) between subjective complaints of fatigue II, III and NE, EP and DP in afternoon session, and (3)between subjective complaints of fatigue I, II, III and EP only in night session. In workers with long shiftwork period(more than or equal to 5 years mean shiftwork period), significant association was found between subjective complaints of fatigue II and NE and EP in morning session only. Therefore we concluded that there was a possibility of healthy shiftworker effect. These results suggested that there was difference in urinary catecholamines and cortisols level between workers with short shiftwork period and workers with long shiftwork period. Further research concerned with shiftwork period and urinary catecholamines is warranted.
The Effect of Creative Plastic Activity in the Art Therapy on Cardiovascular Responses to Stress
Eunkyung Paeng, Yumi Kho, Jinah Rho
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):49-58.   Published online December 30, 2004
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of creative plastic activity in the art therapy on cardiovascular responses to stress. Subjects were 60 high school senior students, and were randomly assigned to art therapy, art education, or simple repetitive task groups (n=20 each group). Subjects in the art therapy group were allowed to express their feelings by using clay and the art education group was asked to shape clay to look like a picture of a completed clay work. The simple repetitive task group performed a task to thread beads on a string. After measuring baseline blood pressure and heart rate, subjects performed experimental tasks as assigned, and then their blood pressure and heart rate were measured again. Lastly, they completed a self-report evaluation form about the experimental task. The results showed that creative plastic activity in the art therapy group and the simple repetitive task decreased systolic blood pressure. The difference between pre- and post-task systolic blood pressures was significantly greater in the art therapy group than the other two groups. The difference between pre- and post-task systolic blood pressures was statistically significant related to creativeness and self-expression. The limitations of this study and future research were also discussed.
Swimming Decreases Leptin-receptor Expression in the Hypothalamus of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Eun-Kyung Kim*, Gye-Young Lee, Chang-Ju Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(4):59-65.   Published online December 30, 2004
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Abstract PDF
No abstract available

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