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Volume 12(1); March 2004
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Original Articles
New Medical Paradigm : Integrative Medicine and Lifestyle Medicine
Kwang-Ho Pyun, M.D.,Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):1-8.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Health professionals and public are increasingly using the term integrative medicine to refer to the merging of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) with conventional medicine. Integrative medicine represents a hihger order system of care that emphasizes wellness and healing of the entire person (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual) as primary goal. How we live our lives clearly affects our health and disease. Lifestyle medicine which represents lifestyle practices and prevention is central to this approach. Lifestyle practices include spiritualty and medicine, mind-body medicine, nutritional medicine and physical activity. Stress is the core issue in mind-body medicine.
Stress and Immunity: Implications to Clinical Practice and Health
Duck-Hee Kang, RN, FAAN
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):9-20.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Stress is ubiquitous. A particular significance of stress is that stress can affect the mental and physical health of individuals. Biobehavioral research is the study of the interrelationships among biological, psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors and explains biological mechanisms by which psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors affect the health. In the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), these effects of psychosocial factors (i.e.,stress) are focused on neuroendocrine and immune responses. Stress-induced immune changes, for example, are extensively documented in PNI to include significant alterations in variety of immune parameters of the cell-mediated, humoral, and innate immunity. Similarly, stress is found to influence health outcomes, including cold and wound healing, through well-controlled studies. Biobehavioral research, therefore, has broad implications which enables researchers to examine many health-related issues in his/her own domain of clinical interest. However, several issues need to be considered in the design and conduct of biobehavioral research: Selecting relevant and sensitive biological parameters and measuring them at optimal time points; understanding potential interactions among coexisting factors and investigating their interactions simultaneously; paying greater attention to recovery patterns of altered biolodical responses; recognizing individual differences; and integrating new genetics knowledge and skills into the scientific inquiries. As health-related research in increasingly more complex, interdisciplinary collaborations also are essential to pull the expertise from several different disciplines. When research in properly conducted, the findings of biobehavioral research can make significant contributions to improving clinical practices, promoting the health, and preventing illnesses.
Chronic pain and stress
Sang-Chul Lee, M.D.,Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):21-28.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Pain is the most common chief complaint in any clinical setting and has been thought to be a simple sensory reponse from tissue damage. But recent have reveled that patients with minimal or no pathophysiology can show pain, especially chronic pain by a cognitive mechanisms, sensory function, and complex neurologic processing. Neuroanatomic structures make any stress initiate neurohumoral responses and a sickness response can come from these as a physiologic process. Pain is one of the protective mechanisms of sickness response, but chronic pain can develop if the sickness response persists without underlying harmful condition and thereaten biological integration. Pain is a complex sensory and cognitive consciousness and can be modified by memory which can bias the personal interation. Chronic pain is often associated with physical and psychological stress and cannot be diagnosed completely by a single physical or radiological findings. Thorough physical and psycological stress evaluation is required for the refractory chronic pain.
Understanding job stress: Solutions through changing organizational culture
Jin-Kook Tak
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):29-38.   Published online May 27, 2004
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The purpose of this paper was to emphasize the importance of changing organizational culture to become healthy organization eventually in order to reduce job stress in organizations. Concretely I discussed strategies to improve not only individuals' general health behaviors but also individuals' specific health behaviors in order to establish healthy organizational culture.
New Medical Paradigm : Integrative Medicine and Lifestyle Medicine
Bum-Hee Yu,M.D.,Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):39-44.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Psychosomatic medicine focuses on the unity of mind and body the interactions between them. Stress can affect various illnesses in the follwing ways. First, psychological factors induce changes of begavior, which result in physical change. Second, general stress responses related to the past, bad, psychological experences can affect organs which become vulnerable to stress by genetic defects, tissue damage in the past, and environmental physical factors. Third, stree-related hormones and other chemical substances result in organic and psychological changes, which lead to disintegration of self defense and aggrevate ego function to a more premitive state. Fourth, individuals react to stress with ineffective coping strategies, which make their environmental situations become more stressful. Stress has been suggested to induce various psychosomatic disorders through 3 body systems; autonomoc nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system. Typical psychosomatic disorders are gastrointesitinal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, coronary heart disease, hypertension, vasovagal syncope, hyperventilation syndrome, bronchial asthma, obesity, hyper/hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, permentrual dysphoric disorder, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromygia, miraine and tension headache, etc. Psychiatric treatment of psychosomatic disorders include psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy of psychosomatic disorders includes use of antidepressants and anti-anxieyty drugs. Physicians need to know pharmacological characteristics and adverse effects of various antidepressant and anti-anxiety drugs
Catecholamines, Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability as Biomarkers for Stress Research
Seok-Hyeon Kim, M.D.,Ph.D.
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):45-50.   Published online May 27, 2004
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During exposure to stress stimuli, the body responds physiologically by increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis via catecholamines and the sympathetic nervous system. This is the reason why catecholamines and heart rate variability(HRV) are the most frequently used biochemical and/or physiological variables for assessing the intensity and effect of stressors. But theses methods still are subject to experimental errors and must be used and interpreted carefully. There must be methodological considerations before choosing the biomarkers for stress research because each of these methods has different characteristics and weak points.
Diagnosis of Hwabung
Jong-Woo Kim
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):51-56.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Hwa-byung is a Korean culture-bound syndrome and it is common in elderly women, but the diagnostic criteria of which have not been completed yet. That is because Hwa-byung is a term spoken generally by civilian in Korea, and the concept of Hwa-byung is also different among researchers. In previous studies, Hwa-byung was considered as an independent disease which had unique symptoms. And, other study suggested that it threatened health as very serious disease. Therefore, the development of standardized and objective diagnostic instrument is very important for treament for treatment of Hwa-byung. This study reviewed previous studies for diagnosis of Hwa-byung and, introduced diagnostic instrument with diagnostic criteria developed by multi-disciplinary study.
Practical Application of Relaxation Training
Kyung-Hyun Suh
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):57-68.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
Relaxation is the most important skill to learn at the beginning of stress management program. Relaxation simply means doing nothing with muscles, But, it is important to know that people who learn to relax do not lose motivation and productivity. Jacobson became to know muscle tension produce various kinds of diseases and this might reflect the increasing pace of life, and he developed a technique for muscle relaxation, Progressive Relaxation. To relax muscles progressively, a person have to begin by tensing and relaxing the major muscle groups of the body. Tensing and relaxing muscles helps a person to increase the awareness of body's muscular response to stress. After tensing, a muscle will automatically relax more deeply when released. This paper introduce how to apply relaxation techiques to those who are highly stressful. This paper include Scanning Relaxation, Deep Muscle Relaxation, Countdown Relaxation, Autogenic Practice, Imagery Training as well as Progressive Relaxation.
Psychological Assesment of Stress
Ji-Sun Park
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):69-76.   Published online May 27, 2004
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The relationship of stress to illness has been the subject of research that examines broadly different conceptualizations of stress across a wide variety of psychosomatic disorder. Theories of stress can be labeled as stimulus oriented, response oriented, or interactional. The stimulus oriented construct views stress as a property of the environment that is imposed on the individual in a demanding. The response orientation to stress postulates that it is not the mere presence of an extermal stressor, but rather the response of the individual to his environment that defines stress. The interactional orientation emphasizes individual characteristics as the major mediators between environmental stimulus and the response evoked. This paper was discussed different constructs of stress theories, assessment method and limitation of self-reported measurements.
What is Tai Chi
In-Ok Lee
Korean J Str Res. 2004;12(1):77-80.   Published online May 27, 2004
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Abstract PDF
The purpose of this paper was to emphasize the importance of changing organizational cuture to become healthy organization eventually in order to reduce job stress in organizations. Concretely I discussed stratedies to improve not only individual's general health behaviors but also individual's specific health behaviors in order to establish healthy organizational culture.

STRESS : STRESS