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Volume 11(1); June 2003
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Original Articles
The After-effects of Torture and Other Cruel Treatment on Comfort Women for Japanese Soldiers during the World War II
Ju-Na Byun
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):1-16.   Published online June 30, 2003
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The study was conducted in order to investigate after-effects of torture and other cruel treatment on comfort women for Japanese Soldiers during the World War II. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed according to the torture method lists published by the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture victims(IRCT), the Post-traumatic disorder checklist from DSM-IV, the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (Kozma and Stones,1980), loneliness from The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, 1980). 1.78.4% of cruel experience of comfort women were identical with IRCT torture method list in total. 75.0% of Physical experience, 87.5% of psychological, 72.7% of compound (sexual) experience were identical with torture method lists. Body injury with guns and knifes, finger twist with metal probes, no food and water supply, dragging body roping neck with a string, rape and threat with guns and knifes, rape during mensturation packing with cotten, sexual organ mutilation such as uterus, ovaries for infertility were not listed of the IRCT torture method lists. 2. The total frequency of torture and other cruel treatment experienced were 240 (Physical 115, psychological 46, sexual 79). Physical 2.0, psychological 1.4, and sexual 1.9 (5.3 in total) torture and other cruel treatment were experienced per comfort woman. 3. The after-effects of torture and other cruel treatment on comfort women were post-traumatic discoder(100%), unhappiness (89.5%), loneliness (36.8%). Major complaints were 'feelings of no future','physical and psychological reaction repeated repeated to the event','feelings of anger all the time and easily upset'. The types of unhappiness were 'shame','demoralization','self-blame','guilty feelings of surviving'. The status of suicide were committed 26%, repeated thiking of suicide 9%, The types of loneliness were 'nobody understand my experience' 42%, 'nobody turn to' 29%, 'looking down on me' 9%, 'mistrust other' 5%, 'experienced alone' 5% 4. The socioeconomical after-effects of torture and other cruel treatment of comfort women were 'living alone' 40% and 'governmental subsiby' 68%.
Expression of ROS-related antioxidant enzymes in immortalized pineal gland tumor cells PGT-ß
Bum-Shik Kim, Hae-Seok Cho*, Joo-Ho Chung*
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):17-24.   Published online June 30, 2003
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The Effects of Koamsimsinhwan without Chinnabaris of Morris Water Maze Test and the level of tyrosine hydroxylase in VTA in Chronic Mild Stress(CMS)-treated Rats
Jong-Chan Kim, Jong-Woo Kim, Wei-Wan Whang, Hyun-Joo Kim*, Eun-Joo Kim*, Hyun-Taek Kim*
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):25-38.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Koamsimsinhwan without Cinaabaris on Morris Water Maze and level of tyrosine hydroxylase in VTA in the Chronic Mild Stress(CMS)-treated rats. Rats of trial group were exposed to chronic mild unpredictable stress for 4 weeks. These CMS-treated rats were stratified into Koamsimsinhwan without Cinaabaris group and vehicle group. And there were control rats excluding both CMS and Koamsimsinhwan without Cinaabaris. Morris water maze test was executed and the level of tyrosine hydroxylase in VTA was measured after 4 weeks-treatment of CMS. The results were as follows: 1. In Morris water maze test, the escape latency of CMS-vehicle group was significantly longer than those of the two groups in the 1st training session(p<.05). 2. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in VTA after CMS treatment showed significant differences among three groups: CMS-vehicle > CMS-drug > Normal(p<.05). These results suggest that Koamsimsinhwan without Cinaabaris may have preventive effect on the learning impairment and suppressive effect on the increase of the level of tyrosine hydroxylase in VTA induced by CMS treatment.
Fatigue, Perceived Stress, Symptoms of Stress, and Fatigue-Regulation Behavior of the Patient with Chronic Fatigue
Kuem-Sun Han
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):39-46.   Published online June 30, 2003
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among Fatigue, Perceived Stress, Symtoms of Stress, and Fatigue-Regulation Behavior of the Patient with Chronic Fatigue. Date were collected by questionnaires from 252 patient with chronic fatigue in General Hospital and Community in Seoul. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. Results were as follows: 1. The score of Fatigue showed significantly positive correlation with the score of Symptoms of Stress, Perceived Stress, and Fatigue-regulating behavior. 2. There was the highest correlation between emotion related to fatigue and symptoms of stress. This study suggest so that perceived stress, emotion related to fatigue, and symptoms of stress are significantly influencing factors on self-regulation behavior of the patients with chronic fatigue.
The Cognitive Effect of Dhanjean Breathing Practice for the Elderly: A Korean Cultural Nursing Intevention
Ju-Na Byun, Kyang-Wan Lee*
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):47-54.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was a exploring survey for estimating the effects of Dahanjeon practice on memory and cognitive ability in Korean elderly. The 40 healthy elderly breathing training subjects in Kouk Sun Do Dahnjeon Breathing Training Center in Seoul and 30 non-training subjects were investigated from March 1997 to April 1997 and December 1 to 31, Two self-reported scales were employed: the Samsung Hospital Memory Ability Scale for the Elderly for memory ability and the MMSE-K (Kwon & Park, 1989)) for the cognitive ability. There was significant difference in memory scores (t=-2.97, p=0.03) and cognitive scores (t=3.45, p=0.001) between 2 groups. The memory ability of training group was 2.01 times higher than non-training group. The cognitive ability of training group was 1.60 times higher than non-training group. In training group, there was a significant difference in memory ability by gender difference (t=2.09, p=0.03) and Chi vibration experience(t=2.05, p=0.02). There was also group difference in cognitive ability by educational background(F=3.16, p=0.001). This study suggests that the Dahnjeon breating practice might be a physically and psychologically effective intervention for the elderly in order to enhance cognitive ability including memory ability.
A study on the life stress, depression, social support of home stayed stroke patients
Keum-Soon Kim, Moon-Ja Suh, Kook-Hee Roh*
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):55-68.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was conducted to examine the life stress, depression, social support of home stayed stroke patients. Data were collected on 145 patients living in K city and the neighborhood located in southern part of Korea. The survey period was from a July to December, 2001. Frequencies, percent, mean, SD, t-test, ANOVA were analyzed from the data collected in this survey by means of SPSS program. The results were as follow: 1. The mean score of life stress was 7.19. There were significant differences in sex: work and financial change, in marital state : total life stress and homework and individual/social change, in main helper : total life stress and individual/social change. 2. The mean score of depression was 41.42. There were significant differences in sex and main helper. 3. The mean score of social support was 15.47. There were significant differences in marital state : total social support and subjective social support, in main helper : total social support, subjective social support, instrumental social support. 4. The life stress was significantly correlated with the depression(r=.325, p =.00). The life stress was significantly correlated with the social support(r=-.290, p=.000). The depression was significantly correlated with the social support(r=-.407, p=.000).
Analysis of intervention studies on stress conducted in Korea
Jin-Joo Oh, Joo-Hyun Kim*, Hyun-Sook Kim**, Mi-Jeong Park***, Su-Jeong Yu****
Korean J Str Res. 2003;11(1):69-82.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was aimed at analyzing the trend of intervention studies on stress, and suggesting direction future stress intervention research in Korea. The studies were selected by using web(Research Information Center for Health, (http://www.richis.org) and manual search of the journals related to nursing. which had been published from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 2000. The total number of the selected studies was 46 from 12 journals. Findings of the analysis could be summarized as follows: 1. The number of stress intervention studies have been gradually increased since 1995. 2. The subjects of studies often include healthy subjects, not limiting on patients or nursing students who are easily accessible. 3. There were lack of verification of homogeneity between control and experimental group, and of validity of instruments used to measure effects of the intervention. 4. The studies using psychological as well as physiological indicators to measure the effects of the intervention have been increasing. 5. Relaxation training was the most popularly used types of intervention for stress among various types of intervention methods. 6. Most of the intervention program had effective results on stress. In the future, more in-depth analysis would be needed to appraise the pertinence of research design and statistical methods used in the research. And it is also needed to compare the size of effects among intervention methods, so that to suggest the appropriate intervention by each subjects.

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