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Wan-Suk Gim 2 Articles
Development and Effects of a Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation Program to Improve Maternal-Fetal Attachment
Min-Jeong Kim, Wan-Suk Gim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):353-364.   Published online December 31, 2019
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  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF

The psychological health of a pregnant woman and a healthy fetal relationship are important for perinatal adaptation. This study aimed to develop loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKCM), which are known to be effective for improving interpersonal relationships and to verify its effectiveness in order to promote maternal-fetal attachment (MFA).


We developed an LKCM curriculum and training program for pregnant women and assessed its efficacy for improving MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and positive fetal movement experience (PFME) through a pre-intervention, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up comparison with a yoga comparison group and an untreated control group.


The LKCM experimental group showed significantly improved MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and PFME than did the other groups at post-intervention and follow-up.


Overall, this study confirmed that LKCM interventions can promote MFA, positive emotions, mindfulness, and PFME. Thus, it is meaningful that this study served to foster beneficial psychological resources compared to numerous studies aiming to improve deficits experienced by pregnant women. Additionally, this is the first full-scale study to develop a program based on specialized LKCM to enhance MFA during pregnancy and verify its efficacy.

Korean Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (K-MAIA): Development and Validation
Wan-Suk Gim, Kyo-Lin Sim, Ok-Kyung Cho
Korean J Str Res. 2016;24(3):177-192.   Published online September 30, 2016
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  • 6 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material

In this study, based on a critical review of the 32-item Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (Mehling, Price, Daubenmier, Acree, Bartmess & Stewart, 2012; MAIA), a 32-item Korean edition of MAIA was developed in a pilot study and validated in two studies. In a pilot study, the 32 items of MAIA were adapted to Korean language, then administered to 253 adults for item analysis. Based on the results on item discrimination, internal consistency, and exploratory factor analysis, the scale was revised and reconstructed. In the study 1, the scale was administered to 295 adults; reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed, and correlation coefficients with other related scales were examined. In addition, interoceptive awareness was compared among groups with varying experiences in training related to interoceptive awareness. In the study 2, the scale was administered to 223 adults; confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Results showed that the Korean edition of MAIA with a total of 32 items and six factors had sufficient reliability and validity, demonstrating a high reliability based on internal consistency of .94, theoretically consistent levels of correlation coefficients with other scales, and satisfactory construct validity. The study concludes with discussions on implications and limitations of the study.