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Wan-Suk Gim 2 Articles
Development and Effects of a Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation Program to Improve Maternal-Fetal Attachment
Min-Jeong Kim, Wan-Suk Gim
STRESS. 2019;27(4):353-364.   Published online December 31, 2019
  • 1,779 View
  • 30 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF

The psychological health of a pregnant woman and a healthy fetal relationship are important for perinatal adaptation. This study aimed to develop loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKCM), which are known to be effective for improving interpersonal relationships and to verify its effectiveness in order to promote maternal-fetal attachment (MFA).


We developed an LKCM curriculum and training program for pregnant women and assessed its efficacy for improving MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and positive fetal movement experience (PFME) through a pre-intervention, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up comparison with a yoga comparison group and an untreated control group.


The LKCM experimental group showed significantly improved MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and PFME than did the other groups at post-intervention and follow-up.


Overall, this study confirmed that LKCM interventions can promote MFA, positive emotions, mindfulness, and PFME. Thus, it is meaningful that this study served to foster beneficial psychological resources compared to numerous studies aiming to improve deficits experienced by pregnant women. Additionally, this is the first full-scale study to develop a program based on specialized LKCM to enhance MFA during pregnancy and verify its efficacy.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prenatal Bağlanmayı Destekleyici Bakım Uygulamaları
    Gamze TESKERECİ, Aysun ÜNAL, Nazlı ÖZBEK, Bedia KOÇAK
    Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry.2021; 13(4): 805.     CrossRef
Korean Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (K-MAIA): Development and Validation
Wan-Suk Gim, Kyo-Lin Sim, Ok-Kyung Cho
Korean J Str Res. 2016;24(3):177-192.   Published online September 30, 2016
  • 2,820 View
  • 131 Download
  • 12 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material

In this study, based on a critical review of the 32-item Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (Mehling, Price, Daubenmier, Acree, Bartmess & Stewart, 2012; MAIA), a 32-item Korean edition of MAIA was developed in a pilot study and validated in two studies. In a pilot study, the 32 items of MAIA were adapted to Korean language, then administered to 253 adults for item analysis. Based on the results on item discrimination, internal consistency, and exploratory factor analysis, the scale was revised and reconstructed. In the study 1, the scale was administered to 295 adults; reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed, and correlation coefficients with other related scales were examined. In addition, interoceptive awareness was compared among groups with varying experiences in training related to interoceptive awareness. In the study 2, the scale was administered to 223 adults; confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Results showed that the Korean edition of MAIA with a total of 32 items and six factors had sufficient reliability and validity, demonstrating a high reliability based on internal consistency of .94, theoretically consistent levels of correlation coefficients with other scales, and satisfactory construct validity. The study concludes with discussions on implications and limitations of the study.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Relationship Between Interoceptive Awareness, Emotion Regulation and Clinical Symptoms Severity of Depression, Anxiety and Somatization
    Su Jin Lee, Mimi Lee, Hyeong Beom Kim, Hyu Jung Huh
    Psychiatry Investigation.2024; 21(3): 255.     CrossRef
  • Body Awareness in Patients With Depression and/or Anxiety Disorder
    Su Jin Lee, Hyeong Beom Kim, Hyu Jung Huh
    Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.2023; 62(1): 63.     CrossRef
  • Pilot Study About the Effects of the Soma Experiencing Motion (Soma e-Motion) Program on Interoceptive Awareness and Self-Compassion
    Mi-Sun Lee, Sun Je Kim, Jeong-Ho Chae, Soo-Young Bhang, Mimi Lee, Hyeong Beom Kim, Hyu Jung Huh
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 284.     CrossRef
  • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA-2) questionnaire in a non-clinical sample of Arabic-speaking adults
    Feten Fekih-Romdhane, Diana Malaeb, Mirna Fawaz, Nancy Chammas, Michel Soufia, Sahar Obeid, Souheil Hallit
    BMC Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Validation of the shortened 24-item multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness, version 2 (Brief MAIA-2)
    Aleksandra M. Rogowska, Rafał Tataruch, Klaudia Klimowska
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Interoceptive Awareness Among the General Public in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Ebtihaj Omar Fallata, Kadeja Abdulrahman Bashekah, Reem Mohammed Alqahtani, Sohaib Essam Althagafi, Mohammed Hisham Bardesi, Abdulaziz Mustafa Adnan, Mohammed Ali Alfaqih, Abdulrahman Mauafaq Aljifri, Hind Mauafaq Aljifri
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Open-Label Placebo Treatment for Experimental Pain: A Randomized-Controlled Trial with Placebo Acupuncture and Placebo Pills
    Seoyoung Lee, Dha-Hyun Choi, Minyoung Hong, In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae
    Journal of Integrative and Complementary Medicine.2022; 28(2): 136.     CrossRef
  • Multidimensional assessment of ınteroceptive awareness (MAIA 2): psychometric properties of the Turkish version
    Saliha ÖZPINAR, Emre DUNDER, Yaşar DEMİR, Melih AKYOL
    Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine.2021; 4(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Translation and validation of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)
    Jennifer Todd, David Barron, Jane E. Aspell, Evelyn Kheng Lin Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd. Khatib, Viren Swami, Yee Cheng Kueh
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(4): e0231048.     CrossRef
  • Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness: Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version
    Joana Machorrinho, Guida Veiga, Jorge Fernandes, Wolf Mehling, José Marmeleira
    Perceptual and Motor Skills.2019; 126(1): 87.     CrossRef
  • Investigating Multidimensional Interoceptive Awareness in a Japanese Population: Validation of the Japanese MAIA-J
    Masayasu Shoji, Wolf E. Mehling, Martin Hautzinger, Beate M. Herbert
    Frontiers in Psychology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Brain responses and self-reported indices of interoception: Heartbeat evoked potentials are inversely associated with worrying about body sensations
    Mindaugas Baranauskas, Aida Grabauskaitė, Inga Griškova-Bulanova
    Physiology & Behavior.2017; 180: 1.     CrossRef