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Sungkun Cho 6 Articles
Effects of Expressive Writing through Self-Distancing on Emotion and Pain Outcomes in Individuals Who Use Emotional Suppression
Soojin Lee, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2022;30(3):129-138.   Published online September 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2022.30.3.129
  • 1,134 View
  • 108 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
Emotions are closely related to pain outcomes, and maladaptive emotional regulation strategies such as suppression can exacerbate pain. The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the effects of expressive writing on emotions and pain outcomes of individuals who use emotional suppression.
Methods
Forty university students with an emotional suppression scale score of more than one standard deviation participated in this study. There were 20 students in the expressive writing group and 20 students in the control group. For the expressive writing group, emotions (negative emotions and state anxiety) and pain experiences (threshold, tolerance, intensity, and pupil diameter measured during cold pressure tasks) were assessed before and after a writing intervention.
Results
The expressive writing group had lower post-negative affect than pre-negative affect and lower post-state anxiety than the control group. However, there were no significant differences between groups in pain outcomes and self-distancing.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that expressive writing can help individuals express and experience negative emotions and anxiety more healthily.
Impact of Instability in Emotional Support Discrepancy from Significant Others on Daily Functioning in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) : A Diary Study
Hyunkyung Yoo, Taejin Jeong, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2020;28(4):276-284.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.4.276
  • 1,603 View
  • 29 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background

Daily functioning is an important aspect of chronic pain management, particularly for individuals living with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Previous studies have established that emotional support from significant others is beneficial for chronic pain patients. However, emotional support can be discrepant from one’s preference and can also fluctuate. Thus, the present study investigates the role of instability in emotional support discrepancy on the daily functioning of patients with CRPS.

Methods

Participants consisted of 21 CRPS patients. Google Forms was used to obtain daily diary ratings over 15 days.The mean square of successive differences was calculated as an indicator of instability of emotional support discrepancy. Statistical analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling.

Results

Hierarchical linear modeling reveals that the moderating effect of instability in emotional support discrepancy on the relationship between daily pain severity daily activity avoidance (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.57, p<.001), activity interference (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.98, p<.001), distraction (coefficient=0.01, t (292)=5.10, p= .007) was statistically significant.

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that instability in emotional support discrepancy reduces the buffering effect of emotional support.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Validation of Types of Body Pain Areas and Related Factors in the Korean Aged Using Latent Class Analysis
    Sang Ye Shin, Eun Suk Lee
    Research in Community and Public Health Nursing.2023; 34: 22.     CrossRef
An Integrative Review of Facial Emotion Information Processing in Depression
Hyejin Park, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2020;28(2):41-50.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.2.41
  • 1,753 View
  • 69 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

This study is an integrative review of literatures of research on emotion processing in depression using facial expression stimuli.

Methods

For the review, we searched domestic and international research articles over the past 20 years according to the integrative review procedure and selected the final 19 papers.

Results

The results of the review revealed that depressed people, compared with those who were not depressed, had the following differences. First, they needed longer time for precise processing of emotion. Second, they managed to recognize positive emotion with high intensity while easily recognized negative emotions with low intensity. Third, they tended to overestimate the intensity of negative emotion. Fourth, they showed a negative interpretation bias to ambiguous or neutral facial expressions. Meanwhile, consistent results across the studies were not found for the variable of accuracy.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that it is necessary to develop more elaborate intervention program and design more sophisticated experiment for further coherent understanding of depression.

The Efficacy of Interpretation Bias Modification Program for Pain Outcomes
Hyejin Park, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2020;28(2):51-60.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2020.28.2.51
  • 2,191 View
  • 43 Download
Abstract PDF
Background

Fear-avoidance model for pain suggests interpretation bias affects subsequent pain experience. However, limited research has been conducted on the role of interpretation bias in a subjective pain experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for pain outcomes (i.e., pain intensity, threshold, and tolerance).

Methods

53 healthy university students were randomly assigned to either the training (n=28) or the control group (n=25). Interpretation bias and negative emotion were assessed before and after conducting the interpretation bias modification for pain (IBM-P). During a cold pressor task, pain outcomes were measured.

Results

Results indicated that the training group showed significantly decreased interpretation bias and negative emotion than the control group after the IBM-P. Also, participants in the training group was found to have a greater pain threshold during the cold pressor task than those in the control group. Furthermore, the IBM-P effect on increased pain threshold was mediated by post-interpretational bias. Other pain outcomes and mediating effect of post-interpretational bias on the negative emotion were not significant.

Conclusions

Results highlight that interpretation bias is modifiable and plays an important role in pain outcomes. Thus, using IBM-P for pain patients can be a useful application to alleviate their pain outcomes. Future research should consider the precise role of interpretation bias that affects patient’s pain outcomes.

Social Support Moderates the Impact of Pain-Related Threat on Avoidance Behavior
Ubin Yi, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2019;27(1):125-131.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.125
  • 1,382 View
  • 47 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

According to the fear-avoidance model, pain becomes chronic when it is related to fear and avoidance behavior. When a pain-related threat occurs, humans instinctively use avoidance behavior strategies. However, the support of significant others is likely to inhibit avoidance behavior even with the same pain-related threat stimulus. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of pain-related threats and social support of romantic partner on avoidance behavior inhibition.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 80 pairs of healthy undergraduate couples, and were randomly assigned to one of four group conditions in a 2×2 factorial design, with threat level (high/low) and social support (presence/absence) as factors.

Results:

The results of the experiment indicated a significant interaction between threat level and social support. Specifically, in the high-threat condition, when social support was provided, task delay time was significantly shorter than when no social support was provided. On the other hand, in the low-threat condition, the time delay difference between high- and low- social support group was not significant. Moreover, social support did not affect fear reduction.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that avoidance behaviors, which are instinctive responses to pain, can be inhibited by social support. This result would enhance understanding of the factors that have not been described in the fear-avoidance model in the pain-chronicization process, and will help expand and improve the model. We also discuss possible limitations of the study and scope for further studies.

The Effects of Monetary Motivation on the Relationship between Pain-Related Fear and Avoidance Behavior
Bun-Ok Kim, Kiseong Kim, Daeyong Shin, Sungkun Cho
STRESS. 2019;27(1):117-124.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.117
  • 1,378 View
  • 23 Download
Abstract PDF
Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of monetary motivation on the relationship between pain-related fear and avoidance behavior.

Methods:

Eighty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups in accordance with task conditions of pain-related fear (high or low) and monetary motivation (high or low).

Results:

The autonomic nervous system was more active in the high pain-related fear group than in the low pain-related fear group as the participants watched a video and performed a task. Also, pain-related fear and monetary motivation had a significant interaction effect on avoidance behavior. High monetary motivation was associated with a shorter delay time during task performance in the high pain-related fear group. No significant difference was observed in the delay time in the low pain-related fear group.

Conclusions:

This study provides empirical evidence supporting the modified fear-avoidance model and experimentally proves the activation of the goal shielding mechanism.


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