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Chad Ebesutani 1 Article
The Validation Study of the Hypomanic Personality Scale for Use in Korea
Jinkyung Oh, Heyeon Park, Chad Ebesutani, Sungwon Choi
STRESS. 2018;26(1):7-17.   Published online March 31, 2018
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Abstract PDFSupplementary Material

Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) had been adapted into several languages for use in various countries as a tool to measure hypomanic tendencies. It is widely used to investigate bipolar disorder risk among non-clinical samples. Its usefulness has also been suggested in Korea via recent studies.


The HPS was adapted through a back-translation process by two bilinguist and reviewed by three clinical psychologists. To investigate internal consistency, test-retest, and convergent and concurrent validity of the HPS, 230 normal participants completed a self-report battery on-line. Explanatory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure of the HPS.


The adapted HPS showed good internal consistency and test-retest correlations. Validation results showed that people who had higher HPS total scores had more extraversion in social relations and openness to new environments and experiences. The HPS scores also had positive correlations with scores of borderline personality trait, impulsive tendencies, sensation seeking, and grandiosity. People with a stronger hypomanic tendency had more hypomania symptoms and depressive symptoms. Exploratory factor analysis supported two factors: (1) ‘social vitality and self-confidence,’ associated with positive characteristics, and (2) ‘hypomanic-like symptoms,’ associated with negative attributes.


The adapted HPS scores were reliable and valid for measuring hypomanic personalities. Hypomanic personality might have two aspects, one related to usefulness for daily life functioning, and the other vulnerable to psychological problems. The implications and limitations of this research and subsequent studies are discussed.