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The Development and Validation of the Relational Need Scales
Korean J Stress Res 2019;27:107-116
Published online March 31, 2019
© 2019 Korean Society of Stress Medicine.

Soo-Hyun Kang , Jung-Ho Kim , Mirihae Kim

Department of Psychology, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Jung-Ho Kim Department of Psychology, Duksung Womean’s University, 33 Samyang-ro 144-gil, Dobong-gu, Seoul 03169, Korea Tel: +82-2-901-8304 Fax: +82-2-901-8301 E-mail:
Received January 14, 2019; Revised February 24, 2019; Accepted February 25, 2019.
Articles published in stress are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the relational need scale. Based on previous studies, we presumed that relational need is comprised of the two independent concepts of approch and avoidance.


The preliminary items were selected through a series of processes and they were analyzed in terms of item content, response distribution and correlations with other measures. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that approach and avoidance concepts were independent from each other.


As a result, the relational need scale was developed, consisting of 6 approach-type items for the relational need subscale and 11 items for the avoidance-type subscale. The two subscales are each subsumed by a one-factor model and a three-factor model, respectively. Specifically, the approach- type subscale has subfactors of ‘Intimate relationship tendency,’ whereas the avoidance-type subscale has the subfactors of ‘sensitivity to others evaluations,’ ‘sensitive to negative evaluations,’ and ‘awareness for others.’


The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion-related validity of the scales were found to be adequate. This study revealed that the Korean version of relational need scale is reliable and valid. Finally, implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

Keywords : Relational need, Approach-Avoidance concept, Affiliative tendency and Sensitivity to rejection, Development of the scales, Validity of the scales

March 2020, 28 (1)

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