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Development and Validation of the Korean Dysfunctional Depression Scale
Korean J Stress Res 2018;26:103-114
Published online June 30, 2018
© 2018 Korean Society of Stress Medicine.

Jong Nam Kim1 , Soonmook Lee2 , Seungwon Choi3 , Jungmin Chae4 , Dong Gi Seo5 , Heon Jeong Lee6 , Eun Soo Won6

1Department of Educational Psychology, Seoul Women’s University, 2Department of Psychology, Sungkyunkwan University, 3Department of Psychology, Duksung Women’s University, 4Department of Counseling Psychology, Seoul Cyber University, Seoul, 5Department of Psychology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 6Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Dong Gi Seo
Department of Psychology, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
Tel: +82-33-248-1728
Fax: +82-33-248-3424
Received April 20, 2018; Revised April 20, 2018; Accepted April 27, 2018.
Articles published in Stress are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Korean dysfunctional depression scale, which measures pathological depression including subclinical depression and clinical depression.
Methods: To achieve this purpose, we collected data from patients diagnosed as having depressive disorder and clients with chief complaints related to depression, and 360 data were analyzed.
Results: Using item linkage methods, we decided 20 items as a dysfunctional depression scale for group research. The results of reliability verification show high internal consistency and stable test-retest reliability. In addition, the result of factor validity demonstrates general factor and two specific factors-the first specific factor is ‘the physical-somatic factor’ and the second specific factor is ‘the pessimistic cognition and alienation factor’. Convergent validity was also confirmed good. Lastly, this study performed standard setting workshop consisting of content experts to decide cut-scores of dysfunctional depression scale. Through the workshop, the standard cut-score of normal-subclinical depression was decided as 44 and the standard cut-score of subclinical-clinical depression was decided as 58. The classification consistency and accuracy indices were to validate standard cut-scores.
Conclusions: This Korean dysfunctional depression scale is verified to have high reliability and validity.
Keywords : Dysfunctional depression, Scale development, Validation, Item linking, Reliability, Validity

June 2018, 26 (2)

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