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Development and Effects of a Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation Program to Improve Maternal-Fetal Attachment
Korean J Stress Res 2019;27:353-364
Published online December 31, 2019
© 2019 Korean Society of Stress Medicine.

Min-Jeong Kim1 , Wan-Suk Gim2

1Life Media Interdisciplinary Programs, 2Department of Psychology, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea
Correspondence to: Wan-Suk Gim
Department of Psychology, Ajou University, 708, Ajou University Campus Plaza, 199 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16502, Korea
Tel: +81-31-219-2769
Fax: +81-31-219-3362
Received October 18, 2019; Revised November 29, 2019; Accepted December 2, 2019.
Articles published in stress are open-access, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: The psychological health of a pregnant woman and a healthy fetal relationship are important for perinatal adaptation. This study aimed to develop loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKCM), which are known to be effective for improving interpersonal relationships and to verify its effectiveness in order to promote maternal-fetal attachment (MFA).
Methods: We developed an LKCM curriculum and training program for pregnant women and assessed its efficacy for improving MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and positive fetal movement experience (PFME) through a pre-intervention, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up comparison with a yoga comparison group and an untreated control group.
Results: The LKCM experimental group showed significantly improved MFA, positive emotion, mindfulness, and PFME than did the other groups at post-intervention and follow-up.
Conclusions: Overall, this study confirmed that LKCM interventions can promote MFA, positive emotions, mindfulness, and PFME. Thus, it is meaningful that this study served to foster beneficial psychological resources compared to numerous studies aiming to improve deficits experienced by pregnant women. Additionally, this is the first full-scale study to develop a program based on specialized LKCM to enhance MFA during pregnancy and verify its efficacy.
Keywords : Maternal-fetal attachment, Loving-kindness and compassion meditation, Positive emotion, Fetal movement experience, Pregnant women

December 2019, 27 (4)

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