Stress Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 2234-1668   pISSN 1225-665X

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Table. 3.

Table. 3.

Difference in positive emotion scores

Category Groups Pretest Posttest Z (p) Difference (post-pre) Z (p)



M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Positive emotion tendency Subjective well-being Exp. 1.51 (.71) 2.64 (.30) −3.84** (.000) 1.13 (.90) −3.95** (.000)
Cont. 2.49 (.90) 2.64 (.30) 1.39 (.166) .21 (.70)
Psychological well-being Exp. 1.89 (.82) 3.22 (.08) −4.16** (.000) 1.33 (.80) −4.59** (.000)
Cont. 3.29 (.68) 3.40 (.83) −.50 (.62) .11 (.54)
Gratitude Exp. 2.23 (1.03) 4.26 (.35) −4.27** (.000) 2.04 (1.02) −5.13** (.000)
Cont. 3.90 (1.04) 3.86 (1.05) −.53 (.60) −.04 (.56)
Optimism Exp. 1.65 (.70) 3.63 (.34) −4.38** (.000) 1.98 (.71) −5.53** (.000)
Cont. 2.71 (.69) 2.80 (1.01) −.33 (.74) .09 (.74)
Self-esteem Exp. 1.98 (.65) 3.61 (.20) −4.39** (.000) 1.63 (.60) −4.30** (.000)
Cont. 2.64 (.91) 3.00 (.91) −1.54 (.12) .37 (.88)
Total Exp. 1.78 (.68) 3.42 (.18) −4.29** (.000) 1.64 (.74) −5.10** (.000)
Cont. 2.91 (.75) 3.04 (.90) −.82 (.412) .12 (.57)

p<.001.

Korean J Stress Res 2019;27:240-50 https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.3.240
© 2019 Korean J Stress Res