Stress Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 2234-1668   pISSN 1225-665X

Stress : eISSN 2234-1668 / pISSN 1225-665X

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants according to trajectories

   VariablesTotal (N=672)Cognitive function trajectories

Normal-maintained (n=279)Normal-declined (n=160)Mildly impaired- maintained (n=115)Mildly impaired- declined (n=75)Severely impaired- declined (n=43)p
Age (year)72.4 (5.4)70.8 (4.6)72.2 (5.0)73.2 (5.1)75.6 (6.0)76.3 (5.9)<.001
Gender
 Female403 (60.0)152 (54.5)89 (55.6)100 (87.0)54 (72.0)33 (76.7)<.001
 Male269 (40.0)127 (45.5)71 (44.4)15 (13.0)21 (28.0)10 (23.3)
Education
 <High school547 (81.4)202 (72.4)134 (84.3)112 (97.4)63 (84.0)36 (83.7)<.001
 ≥High school125 (18.6)77 (27.6)26 (15.7)3 (2.6)12 (16.0)7 (16.3)
Marital status
 Married263 (39.1)82 (29.4)54 (33.8)60 (52.2)41 (54.7)26 (60.5)<.001
 Unmarried409 (60.9)197 (70.6)106 (66.3)55 (47.8)34 (45.3)17 (39.5)
Household income (KRW/year) (n=584)
 <20,000,000441 (75.5)174 (71.6)115 (80.4)81 (83.5)41 (64.1)30 (81.2).015
 ≥20,000,000143 (24.5)69 (28.4)28 (19.6)16 (16.5)23 (35.9)7 (18.9)
MMSE22.44 (6.17)26.33 (2.92)24.35 (3.38)18.24 (2.36)19.93 (4.98)9.29 (6.41)<.001
Duration of DM (year)9.46 (8.22)9.00 (8.46)9.61 (7.71)9.86 (8.75)9.64 (7.79)10.45 (7.90).778
No. of chronic conditions2.28 (0.97)2.22 (0.96)2.30 (0.98)2.21 (0.93)2.39 (0.91)2.60 (1.12).103
Hypertension (yes)421 (62.3)172 (61.7)102 (63.8)64 (55.7)52 (69.3)28 (65.1).106
Heart disease (yes)82 (12.2)35 (12.5)18 (11.3)14 (12.2)7 (9.3)8 (18.6).665
Cerebrovascular disease (yes)45 (6.7)14 (5.0)8 (5.0)5 (4.4)9 (12.0)8 (18.6).002
Depressive symptoms4.21 (2.94)3.71 (2.83)3.83 (2.78)5.13 (3.00)4.59 (3.04)5.71 (2.81)<.001
Self-raged health status
 Poor429 (63.8)141 (20.9)107 (15.8)91 (13.5)52 (7.7)38 (5.6)<.001
 Good243 (36.2)138 (20.4)53 (7.8)24 (3.6)23 (3.4)5 (0.7)
Current smoking (yes)98 (14.6)49 (17.6)26 (16.3)10 (8.7)10 (13.3)3 (7.0).106
Alcohol use (yes)96 (14.3)37 (13.3)29 (18.1)13 (11.3)8 (10.7)8 (18.6).344
Regular exercise (yes)257 (38.2)138 (49.5)68 (42.5)26 (22.6)16 (21.3)9 (20.9)<.001
BMI23.64 (3.53)24.04 (4.01)23.38 (2.83)23.30 (3.43)23.90 (3.34)22.51 (2.85).043
Grip strength20.67 (7.54)23.10 (7.67)21.31 (7.39)16.75 (5.48)16.87 (5.84)15.36 (4.99)<.001
ADL0.37 (1.32)0.16 (0.86)0.20 (1.01)0.28 (1.01)0.60 (1.84)2.23 (2.80)<.001
Korean J Stress Res 2019;27:1-8 https://doi.org/10.17547/kjsr.2019.27.1.1
© 2019 Korean J Stress Res